Redcurrants

IMG_3175.JPG

The redcurrant is a member of the Ribes (gooseberry) family. It is native to parts of western Europe region – Belgium, UK, France, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, northern Italy and Spain, Portugal, Poland and Croatia. Closely related to blackcurrants, redcurrants are grown a little more like gooseberries. All cultivated currant species have Asian and European ancestry. The most significant historical source of cultivation of currants was within Russia during the 11th century when they were grown in monastery gardens, towns and settlements. Redcurrant plants grow wild and they are cultivated both commercially and domestically for their berries. Redcurrants are able to flourish within the Northern hemisphere, in moist to wet, well-drained soil and once established they need little irrigation to survive.

Redcurrants are self-fertile. They like a sheltered, well-drained location with a fertile soil. For the sweetest tasting fruit, position them in a sunny spot but they are tolerant of a little shade and are good for training against shady walls. Usually 5-10mm in diameter, redcurrants hang in tassels known as racemes or strings that poke through the leaves.

Plant them 1.3m (60cm) apart. Plant bare-root currants in late autumn but no later than the end of winter. Container-grown plants can be planted out at anytime. Every spring, when you feed your fruit trees and bushes, also feed your redcurrants with a little Blood, Fish and Bone sprinkled around the trunk followed by a layer of well-rotted manure – not touching the plant at all so as not to burn it or encourage growth in the wrong places on the bush – and add a thick layer of mulch over the top. Water redcurrants through dry periods, especially before/during fruiting season.

Redcurrants fruit on buds that form at the base of the previous year’s new shoots. Currants should be pruned hard in winter to take out unproductive and crossing branches. Prune sublaterals back to only one bud as this will encourage new spurs that will develop flowers and fruit by summer. Cordons should also be pruned as summer arrived. Cut new sublaterals back to five leaves. During winter, cut back the leader to just above one bud of the previous year’s growth and prune all sublaterals to two buds to encourage new fruiting spurs. Prune May-June and November-January.

Netting redcurrants is almost compulsory. As they start to change colour, the birds swoop in and nab as many as they can. Use bird netting to allow the insects in still and pin it down the the floor securely. It makes picking difficult for you but it will ensure you of a harvest.

Redcurrant blister aphids cause red blisters on redcurrant leaves during the summer months. Check the underside of the leaves in late spring for yellow aphids and do your best to remove them. They won’t damage the fruit though so try not to be tempted to use chemicals. You can cut back the side-shoots in mid-June to 1-2cm short for the first fruit to remove any blistered leaves and to encourage good air circulation, if you want to take action. If your redcurrants are affected by sawfly larvae or coral spot, cut any affected shoots back to good wood and burn the cuttings.

IMG_3171.JPG

Redcurrants are ready for picking by midsummer, July-August. They become a beautiful ruby red colour. Unlike soft fruit, one can be patient and leave redcurrants a little longer to change from a pale pink to a rich red to increase sweetness. To harvest, pinch them from the plant as whole trusses, running a fork down the trusses to release the fruit. Storing them in the freezer straight away is the best option as they will spoil very quickly in the fridge.

They are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 49% of the Daily Value. Vitamin K is the only other essential nutrient in significant content at 10% of DV. Redcurrants are known for their tart flavour due to their relatively high content of organic acids and mixed polyphenols.  As many as 65 different phenolic compounds may contribute to the astringent properties of redcurrants. These contents increase during the last month of ripening. Twenty-five individual polyphenols and other nitrogen containing phytochemicals in redcurrant juice have been isolated specifically with the astringent flavour sensed in the human tongue.

Redcurrants can be eaten raw but they are a little sharp tasting (like all currants) and seedy, which is why making jelly rather than jam from them is more ideal. They are high in pectin so a few can be slipped into jams to increase the setting. I like to make redcurrant jelly from our batches. My family eat it with their roast dinners, sausages, chicken dishes, on melted Brie cheese on toast or baked Camembert cheese and rice or alongside a hearty homemade pie. My mum has also made an instant redcurrant sauce to pour like a gravy over the top of mashed potatoes and vegetables, when I had not quite got round to making my first batch of jelly this year and we had run out of last year’s products. In France Bar-leduc or Lorraine jelly is another spreadable jelly made from either white or redcurrants. Redcurrants are a popular filling for Linez torte in Germany and the nectar derived from the fruit is added to water for a drink, known as Johannisbeerschorle, named because redcurrants supposedly ripen on St John’s Day, Midsummer Day on the 24th June. There are plenty of pudding recipes out there for using redcurrants. I have seen redcurrant cupcakes, redcurrant jelly, redcurrant trifle, grunt, cobbler and, of course the famous summer pudding.

IMG_3389.jpg

Redcurrant Jelly

(Makes 4-5x 225g jars)

– 1kg redcurrants – 400ml water – Granulated sugar (see method for further instructions about amounts needed)

  1. Put the redcurrants in a large pan with 400ml of water. Simmer until soft and the juices from the currants have leaked. It should take about 45 minutes.
  2. Strain through a jelly bag/muslin for several hours, better yet to leave it overnight, taking care not to poke or prod as this will result in a cloudy jam.

3. Measure the juice and put it into a clean pan. For every 600ml of juice, add 450g of sugar as you start to bring the pan of liquid to the boil, stirring the sugar in until it has dissolved. Bring it to a rapid boil and leave it for about 8 minutes, stirring occasionally to check if the liquid is becoming sticky rather than runny.

4. Pectin test: Put a china plate inside the freezer until it is cold. Put a small dollop of jelly on the plate and put it back in the freezer for a minute. Remove and run your finger through the middle – if it leaves a trail, it is done. If it starts to run back together, continue to boil and keep checking regularly – be careful not to leave it for too long or it will burn but under-boil it and it will not set.

5. Once your jelly has started to set, remove from the heat and allow to cool before ladling the liquid into sterilised jam jars.

6. To sterilise jam jars, place the jars and lids inside an oven preheated to 150C until warm to the touch. Remove from oven and leave to cool completely before using.

7. Place a wax disc over the top of the jelly in the jars to help them keep longer, seal the lid and label. Store in a cool, dry, dark place overnight before using to allow it to set properly. Serve with your Sunday roast dinner. Use within 12 months.

IMG_3394.jpg

Mum’s Instant Redcurrant Sauce

You will want to use freshly picked redcurrants for this and the younger the better – there will be less pips. Save the frozen and older ones for jelly making.

(Serves 6)

– 250g redcurrants – About 100ml water  – Enough granulated sugar to taste

  1. Place the redcurrants and water in a small saucepan and bring to the boil before turning down to simmer until all of the redcurrant juices leak out into the water. It should take about 10-15 minutes.
  2. Remove from the heat and using a very fine sieve, pour the liquid through it into another pan so that the currants are left behind in the sieve and you have a pure sauce.
  3. Turn it back onto a low heat. Add enough granulated sugar to taste, stirring in to dissolve. Continue to simmer for another 5-10 minutes.
  4. Remove from the heat and serve immediately, pouring it over your Sunday roast dinner, sausages and mash, lamb, potatoes, rice or salad dishes like a gravy. Keep in the fridge for up to 3 days.
Advertisements

Jumbleberry Jam

My sister is currently raising money for her trip to Tanzania next summer. One event she had to do lately was set up a stall at a fete. As chief jam maker of the house, it was way of contributing. Problem was there were no berries for picking and the jams I had from last year were gooseberry, bramble jelly and apple jelly, all packaged in Bonne Mamen jars (you can’t sell it in a branded jar) and quite old with goodness knows what growing under the lids… It was the perfect time to dig out all of the plastic bags and yoghurt pots containing mixtures of fruit that had been shoved inside the freezer as they were ‘too much effort’ to go picking through. A mixture of raspberries, blackcurrants, gooseberries, strawberries, jostaberries and tayberries went in the pot together and ended up with something pretty edible and with a wonderful name I found online – ‘Jumbleberry Jam’. I only made 15 jars and my sister sold 11 (15 and a half, I got to keep and eat the half jar as a cook’s perk). The blackcurrants dominated the mixture along with the raspberries – just as well as those are two of the best jams in the world!

IMG_2652.JPG

I am a jam enthusiast. First it was raspberry obsession, then I discovered blackcurrant, homemade plum (shop ones are always disappointing), bramble jelly, apple jelly, gooseberry, boysenberry and of course strawberry. I would love to try making strawberry jam one year but there is no way I will manage to harvest enough this year. We have been eating them fresh every evening and I need at least 1kg for a couple of jars worth – I will have to shelve that fantasy for the time being and stick to making raspberry and allowing myself the occasional indulgence of buying strawberry jam from Sainsbury’s.

IMG_1252.jpg

I must admit, I am famous for making runny jam that doesn’t set, even when I add bottled pectin from the shops. However, I think I have worked out how to do it now: do not be impatient about boiling (get on with another job in the kitchen and keep an eye on it rather than standing around waiting), do not be afraid of using lots of lemon juice and use bottle pectin, especially when making jam with berries low in pectin or fruit that has been frozen (they lose some pectin that makes the jam set). The Jumbleberry jam set very well – too well, it was solid and only just spreadable, but after experience I would say most people prefer very set jam to the kind of jam that runs off your toast and goes everywhere but inside your mouth.

This is the perfect recipe for anyone who has old fruit hanging around in the freezer to clear out to make way for this year’s pickings. Enjoy!

IMG_2659

Jumbleberry Jam

(Makes enough for 4 medium sized jars)

  • 1 kg mixed berries and currants – 1 kg granulated sugar – Juice of at least 1 lemon, three is best or more – Half a bottle of — pectin
  1. In a large plan, place the fruit and turn it on to high flame. Add the sugar and lemon juice and stir in until the sugar has dissolved. Bring the mixture to a rolling boil, stirring now and then.
  2. Place a china plate in the freezer in advance for the pectin test.
  3. Allow the fruit to boil furiously for more than ten minutes, stirring occasionally to see how it is going. When the mixture starts to feel slightly gloopy and sticks more to the spoon without looking as runny as it did before when it drips off, remove the plate from the freezer and add a dollop onto the surface. Place it back in the freezer for a couple of minutes then take it out and run your index finger through the middle. If the jam is set and wrinkles where you push your finger through, it is ready. If it does not, continue to boil until it does so.
  4. Once done, turn off the heat and pour in the pectin, stirring it in. Leave the jam to cool.
  5. Preheat the oven to 150C and sterilise the jam jars and the lids inside – they are done when they feel hot to the touch. Remove these from the oven and allow them to cool.
  6. Once the jam has cooled slightly and so have the jars, ladle the jam into the jars, place a wax disk over the top if you have any and put the lid on top, using a damp cloth to clean up any spillage running down the sides. Place the jars overnight in a cool place. They will be ready for eating the following day and should last for months.

IMG_2650.JPG