Update: 1st September 2018 – Sweetcorn

Harvested our first sweetcorn of 2018 yesterday, and I think it is our best yet.

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Fully grown, yellow kernels, picked just at the right time. Not tough and old, but completely tender and sweet.

We grew our usual Swift F1 seeds this year. We started them off in tall yoghurt pots of compost indoors in May. Once they were big enough to handle and the frosts were over, we planted them outdoors into fertilised earth in direct sunlight. With the glorious sun in June and July along with a vigorous watering schedule, the actual sweetcorn plants grew huge, are tallest yet, going past my 5’3 at least.

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Sweetcorn are pollinated by wind rather than insects. You want to get the dust from the tops of the plant onto the tassels below that will become the sweetcorn if pollinated. I did a lot of hand pollinating this year, due to the lack of wind, and thank goodness it seemed to work!

To check if the sweetcorn is ready to harvest, you wait until the tassels have become dark brown instead of white, basically died back. You then gently peel apart the green skin of the corn and insert a finger nail into one of the kernels – if the liquid comes out milky white, it is ready. If not, leave it for a couple of days before checking again.

Now this is important: harvest your sweetcorn only the you are about to cook it. As soon as you take that cob off the plant, its sugar starch degenerates rapidly, straight away. This means the taste of the cob decreases in yumminess very, very quickly. You are advised to bring a large pan of water to the boil before you pick your cob!

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Perfect cob! Cooked and put in the bowl in readiness for kernel removal…

To cook the cob, remove the green outer leaves and tassels. Plop the whole cob into the boiling water and leave to boil for a couple of minutes. Remove and put to one side to cool. You can either serve sweetcorn whole as corn on the cob with some butter, or, standing the corn in a large bowl, using a knife, cut down the sides of the cob, scraping the kernels off. You can then serve the sweetcorn kernels without the cob or you can freeze them like this in plastic bags, as they will take up less space in your fridge. Cooking and freezing locks in the sugar starch and preserves the taste and goodness of the sweetcorn.

Voila!

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Sweetcorn kernels scraped off and served for lunch.

Does anyone else think of Pocahontas when they see sweetcorn with the green leaves still on?

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‘Just around the river bend…’ 

That film’s got sot some cracking good songs.

Other fun news: made tomato passata last week and last night I used it to make homemade pizza.

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That means that our dinner used homegrown onion, garlic, perpetual leaf spinach, oregano and tomatoes!

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Shame the mozzarella and cheddar, olive oil and bread flour or yeast weren’t home produced… but at least the pizza base was homemade!

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Recipe for pizza can be found here: Updated recipe: homemade pizza and information about growing sweetcorn can be found here: Sweetcorn

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Onion

The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa “onion”), the most widely cultivated vegetable of the genus Allium. Its close relatives include the garlic, shallot, leek, chive and Chinese onion. The word onion comes from the Latin word ‘unio’ meaning unity, because it grows as a single bulb.

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The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant but is usually treated as an annual and harvested in its first growing season. Onions are cultivated and used around the world. As a food item, they are usually served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish, but can also be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys.

The onion plant has a fan of hollow green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached. The bulbs are composed of shortened, compressed, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale (leaves) that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem. In the autumn (or in spring, in the case of overwintering onions), the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle. The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage.

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The geographic origin of the onion is uncertain because the wild onion is extinct and ancient records of using onions span all over Asia. The first cultivated onions are the subject of much debate, but the two regions that many archaeologists, botanists, and food historians point to are central Asia or Persia. They were probably almost simultaneously domesticated by peoples all over the globe, as there are species of the onion found the world over. Food uses of onions date back thousands of years in China, Egypt and Persia. Traces of onions recovered from Bronze Age settlements in China suggest onions were used as far back as 5000 BC, not only for their flavour, but the bulb’s durability in storage and transport. Ancient Egyptians revered the onion bulb, viewing its spherical shape and concentric rings as symbols of eternal life. Onions were used in Egyptian burials, as evidenced by onion traces found in the eye sockets of Ramessess IV. The fourth book of the Hebrew Bible composed around the 5th century BC mentions onions when recounting scarce foodstuffs available: 11:5 — We remember the fish which we used to eat free in Egypt, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic. In the 6th century BCE, the Charake Samhita, one of the primary works in the Ayurvedic tradition, documents the onion’s use as a medicinal plant, a ‘diuretic, good for digestion, the heart, the eyes, and the joints’. Pliny the Elder wrote about the use of onions and cabbage in Pompeii. He documented Roman beliefs about the onion’s ability to improve ocular ailments, aid in sleep, and heal everything from oral sores and toothaches to dog bites, lumbago and dysentery. Archaeologists unearthing Pompeii long after its 79 CE volcanic burial have found gardens resembling those in Pliny’s detailed narratives where the onions would have been grown. Onions were taken to North America by the first European settlers only to discover the plant readily available, and in wide use in Native American cooking. According to diaries kept by certain of the first English colonists, the bulb onion was one of the first crops planted by the Pilgrims.

Shallots are a type of onion, but  was formerly classified as a separate species, A. ascalonicum. Like garlic, shallots are formed in clusters of offsets with a head composed of multiple cloves. The skin colour of shallots can vary from golden brown to gray to rose red, and their off-white flesh is usually tinged with green or magenta. You can use shallots in the place of onions when cooking, but they do make smaller harvests.

In the gardening world, we are used to three different colours of onions. We grow the brown/yellow/golden, the red/purple and then the white, which I must admit, I have never tried. Across the world the brown is often used in everyday cooking, the red is often served raw as it is sweeter, and the white are often used in Mexican styled cuisine as they are very sweet once sautéed.

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Here are some varieties to try:

Brown: Radar (one of my favourites), Alisa Craig, Stuttgarter, Centurion, Hercules, Sturon, Hytech

Red: Red Baron, Electric (another favourite)

White: Snowball

Shallot: Griselle (good), Jermor, Bistro, Golden Gourmet, Picasso, Mikor, Yellow Moon, Vigarmor

Onions are best cultivated in fertile soils that are well-drained. Sandy loams are good as they are low in sulphur, while clayey soils usually have a high sulphur content and produce pungent bulbs. Onions require a high level of nutrients in the soil. Phosphorous is often present in sufficient quantities, but may be applied before planting because of its low level of availability in cold soils. Nitrogen and potash can be applied at regular intervals during the growing season, the last application of nitrogen being at least four weeks before harvesting. Or try planting them in your crop rotation after the runner beans. Bulbing onions are day-length sensitive; their bulbs begin growing only after the number of daylight hours has surpassed some minimal quantity. Most traditional European onions produce bulbs only after 14 hours or more of daylight. Southern European and North African varieties are often known as “intermediate-day” types, requiring only 12–13 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. “Short-day” onions, which have been developed in more recent times, are planted in mild-winter areas in the autumn and form bulbs in the early spring, and require only 11–12 hours of daylight to stimulate bulb formation. Onions are a cool-weather crop. Hot temperatures or other stressful conditions cause them to bolt, meaning that a flower stem begins to grow.

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Onions may be grown from seeds or from sets. We often use sets (I’ve tried shallot seeds and grown a total of two miniature shallots that were the size of my pinkie’s fingernail…) Onion seeds are short-lived and fresh seeds germinate better. The seeds are sown thinly in shallow drills, thinning the plants in stages. In suitable climates, certain cultivars can be sown in late summer and autumn to overwinter in the ground and produce early crops the following year. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed thickly in early summer in poor soil and the small bulbs produced are harvested in the autumn. These bulbs are planted the following spring and grow into mature bulbs later in the year. Certain cultivars are used for this purpose and these may not have such good storage characteristics as those grown directly from seed.

If growing from seed, sow 1cm (½in) deep in rows 20cm (8in) apart from late February through to early April. Thin by removing weaker seedlings, first to 5cm (2in) apart and then later to 10cm (4in) apart. Plant spring sets March – April and harvest August – September. Plant winter sets in September and harvest May – June. Plant onion sets 10cm (4in) apart in rows 30cm (12in) apart. Gently push the sets into soft, well-worked soil so that the tip is just showing, and firm the soil around them.

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Routine care during the growing season involves keeping the rows free of competing weeds, especially when the plants are young. The plants are shallow-rooted and do not need a great deal of water when established. Bulbing usually takes place after 12 to 18 weeks. The bulbs can be gathered when needed to eat fresh, but if they will be kept in storage, they should be harvested after the leaves have died back naturally. In dry weather, they can be left on the surface of the soil for a few days to dry out properly, then they can be placed in nets, roped into strings, or laid in layers in shallow boxes. They should be stored in a well-ventilated, cool place such as a shed.

Freshly cut onions often cause a stinging sensation in the eyes of people nearby, and often uncontrollable tears. This is caused by the release of a volatile gas, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, which stimulates nerves in the eye creating a stinging sensation. This gas is produced by a chain of reactions which serve as a defence mechanism. Chopping an onion causes damage to cells which releases enzymes called alliinases, generating sulfenic acids. Lacrimal glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant.

Onions are rich in carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium. They are a very good source of vitamin C and so good for building your immunity. They are also a good source of enzyme-activating manganese and molybdenum as well as heart-healthy vitamin B6, fiber, folate, and potassium. Onions are surprisingly high in flavenoids, one of the top ten vegetables with Quercetin content. If you want to retain the flavonoid, peel off only the outer dry skin as the outer layers are more concentrated with flavenoids. Onions have been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and help in problems like rheumatoid arthritis or allergic airway inflammation. Studies show that onions help balance blood sugar levels. Onions also have anti bacterial properties. There are many stories and folklore. It is supposed to have saved families from plague and other infections. The anti bacterial effects of the onions act against the streptococcus mutants that cause various dental cavities and gum diseases. Studies suggest that the consumption of onions enhances the anti clotting capacity of blood. Onions have been known to increase bone density, reducing the risk of fractures. The sulphur content in onions is excellent for the connective tissues as well.

Natural treatments that use onion:

-Onions are also used in the treatment of piles or haemorrhoids. The juice of 30g of onion mixed with water and sugar is administered to the patient twice a day.

-In alopecia (hair loss), a topical application of onion juice has been said to initiate the re-growth of hair.

Cough, cold and asthma is often treated with a serving of onions, as it is known to decrease bronchial spasms. Onion juice mixed with honey helps cure bronchitis and influenza.

-Onions are also known to stimulate the growth of good bacteria while suppressing the growth of harmful bacteria in the colon, reducing the risk of colon cancer.

-The juice of Tulsi leaves (holy basil) with equal quantities of lemon juice and onion extract applied on the skin takes care of many skin diseases.

-A slice of cut onion rubbed over acne is supposed to clear up the skin quickly by taking off the bacterial infections.

-Naturopaths recommend eating onion and jaggery to increase body weight.

-Eating one raw onion a day reduces cholesterol in the blood.

-A remedy for warts is the application of the juice of one finely chopped onion sprinkled with salt and left for a few hours. This needs to be repeated 3 to 4 times a day until the wart dries up.

-The cure for cholera in Indian households is one onion pounded with 7 black peppers. It lessens vomiting and diarrhoea immediately. A little sugar could be added to the mixture to increase its effectiveness.

-A tea made of onions boiled in water, cooled, strained, and given to patients suffering from urinary infections gives immediate relief.

-Slice an onion and rub it over the sting of a bee, wasp or a mosquito to ease the discomfort.

-In the treatment for chicken pox, Indian women would serve the afflicted person a bowl of curd rice with chopped onions.

 

Onions can be added to anything. They are the base of all sauces, add flavour to a salad when served raw, and are just fundamental in the kitchen for pizza toppings, curries, stir fries, pies…

Here are some wonderful recipes using onions:

Pasta salad with fried onions and tomatoes : Autumn planting … and a recipe!

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Recipe: Baked Potatoes and Kidney Beans

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Aubergine (Eggplant) Curry

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And lots more – just type onion into the search bar on the home page. 

 

Peppers

Peppers (Sweet Peppers, Bell Peppers, Capsicum) are from the species Capsicum annuum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green, chocolate/brown, vanilla/white, and purple. Green and purple peppers have a slightly bitter flavor, while the red, orange and yellows are sweeter and almost fruity.  The whitish ribs and seeds inside bell peppers may be consumed, but some people find the taste to be bitter. They are members of the nightshade family, which also includes potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant, are sweet and plump vegetables featuring either three or four lobes.

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Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Pepper seeds were imported to Spain in 1493, and from there spread to other European, African, and Asian countries. Today China is the world’s largest pepper producer, followed by Mexico and Indonesia. The earliest fossil traces so far are from southwestern Ecuador, where families grew their own peppers about 6,100 years ago.

The word pepper comes from the Greek word pipari which means the black spice. The misleading name “pepper” was given by Europeans when Christopher Columbus brought the plant back to Europe. At that time, black pepper (peppercorns), from the unrelated plant Piper nigrum originating from India was a highly prized condiment. “Pepper” was at that time applied in Europe to all known spices with a hot and pungent taste and was therefore naturally extended to the newly discovered vegetable (botanically a fruit but referred to as a vegetable in culinary use). Peppers were not hot but still looked a lot like the other hot peppers, chilli peppers. The pepper is the only variety of its genus that doesn’t produce any capsaicin which is the compound that is the heat in chili peppers. The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive form of a gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the “hot” taste,

All of the bell pepper varieies start green and turn to red or yellow or orange etc. It is the same variety but each of the colors (besides green) is a different cultivar.

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Now, I haven’t been too successful with growing peppers but that was mostly due to being a bad mummy to them. I have known a neighbour to grow lots of delicious peppers. Because I’m in England, I have to grow then indoors, but I’ve included the outside instructions as well, below.

For greenhouse crops, sow indoors, February-April. A warm kitchen windowsill is all you need for starting these seeds. Sow thinly, 0.5cm (¼”) deep, in a tray of compost. Water well and place in a warm position. A temperature of 15-20°C (60-68°F) is ideal. Keep moist. Seedlings usually appear in 7-21 days. Transplant to individual pots when large enough to handle. Grow on in cooler, but not cold conditions. Plant out May-June, to large pots, growing bags or into warm, well-drained soil in the greenhouse border. For outdoor crops: delay indoor sowing until March or April. Gradually accustom plants to outside conditions (avoid frosts), before planting out 40cm (16″) apart, when frosts are over. Choose a warm, sunny, sheltered spot. Outdoor crops will be smaller and later than those in a greenhouse. Harvest: July-October.

Peppers are often harvested when the fruit is still green, but full sized. Allowing the pepper to remain on the plant and continue to ripen, changing colors from yellow, orange to red before picking pepper fruit, will result in sweeter peppers. Harvest with scissors to not break the branches of the plant. Peppers do not keep very long so try to use as soon as you have harvested them.

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I have tried ‘Californian Wonder’ from Mr Fothergills as well as ‘Northern Lights’, but there are plenty more varieties available. When you are buying pepper seeds, just look for ‘sweet peppers’ as other ones will be hot ones, that you might not want to get confused with!

Capsicum peppers are rich sources of antioxidants and vitamin C. The level of carotene is nine times higher in red peppers. Red peppers have twice the vitamin C content of green peppers. Red and green bell peppers are high in para-coumaric acid. The characteristic aroma of green peppers is caused by 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP).

There are lost of delicious ways to have peppers. Stir fries are great, especially for the green peppers. I like the red ones raw as part of any salad as well as with melted Brie cheese on toast. Stuffed peppers are delicious with rice. But today I am sharing with you another way of fancying up my homemade pizza:

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Follow this pizza recipe Updated recipe: homemade pizza and after sprinkling the cheese on top, slice the de-seeded pepper/s into small segments and scatter over the surface before putting it in the oven and following the usual steps.

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Enjoy!

Updated recipe: homemade pizza

The last of the Kale

Updated pizza recipe posted on my baking blog, Bella’s Baking:

https://bellasbakingsite.wordpress.com/2017/01/24/pizza/

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The last of the Kale

I am currently picking the last ‘burst’ of small kale leaves from the curly kale I sowed last summer as they flower.

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Kale has had a lot of publicity over the last few years as a member of the dreaded team ‘superfood’. I’m a little snobbish of the phrase ‘superfood’ as it is basically ‘trendy food’ or ‘fad food’, ‘faze food’. It is the in-group in the culinary world, when leggings and purple hair are the height of fashion before jeans and original colours return, a superfood, like coconut which I think is the latest addition to the group, joins the Mean Girl cliche before being cast aside for the next fad that everyone has to join in with – to be cool. Since when did food need to be cool? I suppose it was always the case. Nevertheless, kale needs to be adored for it’s usefulness for the vegetable grower instead of the publicity it gets in the press. I was surprised when I ate it as I was expecting it to, honestly, be vile. It certainly does not look pretty on its own but it tastes, well, great.

Kale is high in iron, beta-carotene and folic acid. It is a source of vitamins A, C (more than in carrots, apparently) and K, manganese and copper. 80g contains 120mg of calcium, great for dairy-free dieters over the world. It is rich in lutein, an anti-oxidant that keeps our eyes healthy, 76mg lutein per kg while broccoli only contains 17mg. So far, so good.

It is thought to have descended from the ‘wild cabbage’, like broccoli, cauliflowers and other brassicas that came to Europe around 600BC by Celtic wanderers, being cultivated for over 2,000 years. Apparently it was a significant crop during the Roman times (but they are famous for not being very fussy eaters) and it was a crop for peasants in the Middle Ages until the popular cabbage found its way to our hearts. Kale is known for being grown in colder climates because of its resistance to frost – our garden was hit by severe frost earlier in January reaching a -3C  but I did not need to fleece them once, and they are still alive and pickable. It was so hardy, in the old days kitchens in Scotland used to have a special kale pot to cook the leafy green. Towards the end of the 20th century, kale was grown specifically as winter feed for livestock, such as sheep and cattle, on farms and consumed more by animals than humans. Now though, it has risen in our esteem more than ever as a nutritious vegetable and a valuable crop for the ‘hunger gap’ for home growers.

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Kale ‘Nero De Toscana’

Kale is a wonderful vegetable for the kitchen gardener. It is tough and prolific. Start sowing under cover or indoors from March, the last sowing being in October, and you will have enough kale to harvest over winter and then the following spring. They are a brassica so remember that they do need a lot of feeding and it is a good idea to net them in the dreaded cabbage white season as the caterpillars go nuts for them. I found that out last year but do not despair and rip the plants up, squash the caterpillars and leave the plants that will heal themselves and grow a new, fresh batch of leaves if given a little time. All of my ravaged kale grew lots of new leaves over the months. My favourite types are the green ‘Dwarf Curly Kale – Starbor’ and ‘Nero de Toscana’ kale with smoother leaves (more of a favourite with pests I have noticed and flowers quicker than curly kale). Another popular variety is ‘Red Russian kale’, a deep purple colour which tastes the exact same, think of it being like the purple version of green lettuce.

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Newly transplanted kale earlier this year in bottles for protection from wind and change in temperature
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Curly Kale baby

Over the last winter, kale was the one vegetable I could always rely on to pick in the ‘hungry gap’ when nothing else was growing. When my beloved spinach had ended or was too small to pick, when the last batch of frozen beans had gone and we had run out of peas and were on strike and refusing to go shopping, kale was the answer to our need for cooked greens. We harvest the leaves by picking them from the plant – one is supposed to pick the tallest ones further up the plants – before washing and stripping them off their slightly tough stalks and dumping them in boiling hot water to simmer for a few minutes until cooked. It is surprisingly yummy just plain boiled (I am not a fan for eating it raw but if you like it then that is brilliant as it is another way of enjoying this green). As well as eating it just boiled alongside the main dish, we also put the leaves in casseroles, Bolognese, lasagna, curries, stir fries etc. My brother doesn’t like kale on its own but is fine when it is mixed in a gloop as you can’t tell it is in there. I have tried making kale pesto – awful, I think only my mum and perhaps my sister liked it and I am sure they were just being polite, there are still two jars hidden at the back of the fridge. We also invented a kale version of Crispy Seaweed that you can get in Chinese restaurants or take aways and it is a very good version which I will share with you one day as well as a Kale Rice Bake which is delicious. However, today I thought it was a good idea to share with you one of the best dishes known to mankind where you can slip some kale in subtly: homemade pizza.

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Cooked homemade pizza

Making your own pizza is way better than ordering Dominos and it really is not that hard. In the winter add kale to the sauce, in the summer you could very between swiss chard or spinach or even some oriental komatsuna or pak choi. Feel free to add cut up ham, pineapple, pepperoni, olives or even some sweet peppers on top. We sometimes do half a pizza with these extra toppings and leave the other half just plain cheese for fussy me. The brilliant thin about making your own pizza is that you can play and add whatever you like. By the way, for those of you that have not heard of Italian passata, it is basically thickened tinned tomatoes, a sort of tomato puree but I would recommend splashing out on the passata rather than a puree from the bottle, it will taste far better. You can buy them in any normal supermarket or of course, try making some yourself if you get a glut of tomatoes in the summer?

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Pizza being assembled: the kale tomato paste is spread on top, followed by the cheese – the dark green in the topping is the sautéed kale
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Pizza just before cooking

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Unfortunately, for the most recent pizzas I have made lately,  I was out of mozzarella which I love on top of a pizza – it makes it so gooey and cheesy and I would recommend trying it. I often use a mixture of any cheese in the house, always chedder, mozzarella if I available, parmesan if any is grated already… This time I used a lot of cheddar cheese and some gruye, a cheese made from raw milk as well as some shavings of left-over parmesan from a previous meal. There are plenty of cheeses in the world, plenty of greens to try on top so get going and experiment.

I have included two versions: one uses a bread machine (the cheats way I use to ensure I get a good dough) but I have also added a hands-on method to try. Many chefs will advise you to use Italian 00 pasta flour or strong white bread flour. I use a majority of one of these, depending on what I have available, and I add about 10% of Khoresan flour, an old-fashioned flour you can buy from Doves in large supermarkets or online now (it is really good to use in homemade naan or pitta breads) and I add a little wholemeal bread flour into the mixture too. If you are a little daunted by the idea of mixing flours, then just stick to the safe strong white bread flour, it is more likely to rise, especially is using the hands-on method.

Enjoy!

Recipe:

Cheese and Kale Topped Pizza

(Serves 6, two or three slices per person)

Base: – 250g bread flour: I use mostly white flour, either ‘Strong White Bread Flour’, ’00 Pasta Flour’ with about 30g Khoresan flour with perhaps 50g-100g ‘Strong Wholemeal Bread Flour’. It is up to you, I would just advise using more white flour than any other to make sure the dough rises.

–  1 tsp (5g) fast-action dried yeast – 1tsp (5g) salt – 20 ml (2tbsp) olive oil – 160ml water

Topping: – 1 large onion, finely sliced – Olive oil, to fry in – 1-2 large garlic cloves – 500g packet of Italian Passata – About 200g kale, washed and de-stalked – A small handful of oregano leaves (I use anywhere from 8 – 14 small leaves), torn into fine pieces – A dash of maple syrup – Salt and pepper – 500g cheese of choice: I would advise about 300g cheddar cheese, one packet of mozzarella and the rest another cheese, like parmesan or gruye. Again, this is up to you – Any other additional toppings of your choice: e.g. ham and pineapple, olives, pepperoni etc.

  1. If you have a breadmaker, use this process for quickness and ease: Put the tsp of yeast into the bread pan followed by the flour, salt, olive oil and water. Put the bread pan inside the breadmaker and set it to your DOUGH setting, the timer should say 45 minutes. It is going to knead the ingredients together and help it rise.
  2. If you do not have a breadmaker: Put the yeast inside a large bowl followed by the flour and salt. Stir in the ingredients. Start to pour in the water, slowly as you mix to incorporate into a sticky dough, adding in the olive oil too. Once the mixture is completely combined, tip the dough out onto a floured surface and knead into a large ball so that it is not so sticky and more springy to the touch. Put inside a bowl or basket with a tea-towel and a plastic bag cover it and put it in a warm place, an airing cupboard is best, and leave to rise for about an hour.
  3. Meanwhile, pre-heat the oven to the highest temperature your oven can offer you, mine reaches 325C.
  4. Make the topping: in a large frying pan, fry the onion in the olive oil over a a medium flame until starting to brown. Add the passata and the diced garlic, turning the flame up to high and stirring – the aim is to boil off some of the passata liquid so it looks more like a thick gloop, not a runny paste that will slide off the pizza base in the cooking process. Add the kale and leave the mixture to boil for a couple of minutes, still stirring it occasionally. Add the torn oregano, a good dash of maple syrup and a grind of salt and then pepper. Stir in and leave to continue boiling off. Turn it down to simmer and grate the cheeses (cutting the mozzarella into thick pieces instead).
  5. Place a large silicone sheet on the floor, or baking paper, and dust with semolina. Dust the dough with semolina to prevent it from sticking to your hands and dump it on the sheet. Now, I cheat here for ease. I coat a rolling-pin in semolina and use to flatten out the dough, rolling it into a huge pizza shape to that it covers nearly all of the sheet (homemade pizzas are rarely a perfect circle, I call them ‘rustic’). Once it is large and flat, remove the topping from the low flame and scrape onto the pizza base. I like to use a spatula to do this. Spread the topping evenly all over the base.
  6. Put a layer of mozzarella cheese all over the base and then sprinkle the rest of the cheeses on top thickly. Add any other toppings now.
  7. Pull out a shelf in the oven and carefully lift and slide the large pizza onto it, be careful not to burn yourself. Cook in the oven for 10 minutes, keeping an eye on it towards the end to make sure it does not burn. Carefully remove from the oven and slide the sheet with the pizza still on top onto a large tray to carry. Cut using a large pair of scissors into slices and serve with a lovely salad picked straight from the garden. When we have a glut of runner-beans or peas, we serve these alongside it instead and it is as equally delicious. Any left-overs can be kept in a container in the fridge and eaten cold the next day or put inside a preheated oven to warm up.
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Serve with a fresh salad picked from the veg patch

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