Recipe: Pasta, Courgette and Pine Nuts

I was inspired to make this recipe after my vegetable course at River Cottage in July. It was a different dish but it gave me the idea of peeling the courgette into slices, ribbons, and frying them before serving them as a topping over pasta. The pine nuts were an addition I added instead of cheese for protein so that you get all the nutrients you need, making this dish vegetarian, even vegan and a good way to use a courgette or two.

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It is a fancy looking dish but it is so simple. It took me about 15 minutes and that was while I was faffing around with other stuff in the kitchen.

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You could try adding herbs, lemon juice or parts of rind would be nice, a scattering of mint over the top afterwards. I added some runner beans alongside because I wanted more greens but it is completely optional. Maybe some raw tomatoes tossed in the fried dish when it is off the heat, soaked in some oil?

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For a non-veggie bits of bacon might be nice?

This serves just one. To increase the amounts, just double etc.

Have fun and experiment anyone who wants to try something new with their courgettes.

 

Pasta, Courgette and Pine Nuts

(Serves 1)

-About 2 serving spoons/ 2 nests of tagliatelle pasta -Olive oil, for frying in -1 medium sized courgette -1 handful of pine nuts

  1. Bring a pan of water to the boil. Add the pasta and leave to simmer for about ten minutes until cooked. Drain and set aside.
  2. Put the olive oil into a frying pan. Top and tail the courgette and using a peeler, take slices off the courgette into the frying pan until all of the vegetable has been used. Fry gently in the frying pan, tossing it in the olive oil for a minute. Add the handful of pine nuts and continue to stir over the flame for a few minutes.
  3. Put the pasta on a plate and scrape the courgette and pine nuts on top. Serve.

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Recipe: Baked Potatoes and Kidney Beans

This is a really nice, warming, simple dish to make. Depending on what you have growing in your garden, most of the ingredients can be sourced from there too!

You can vary this vegetarian meal entirely. You could add other greens like spinach, kale, swiss chard, pak choi to the gloop. You could add soy sauce, Lea and Perrins, salt and pepper, maple syrup or other seasonings. You could add chilli. You could add some melted cheese to the final plate or find some meat for a meat-eater. Add some herbs from the garden too? This is just a simple, basic recipe which apart from baking the potatoes which takes time, is really quick to make and very nutritious too.

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Home grown potato, runner beans, onion and garlic (not tomatoes or kidney beans this year…)

Baked Potatoes and Kidney Beans

(Serves 2-4)

-1 baking potato per person -Olive oil -1 onion -2 garlic cloves -450g tomatoes (tinned or prepared to be cooked like tinned ones) -400g kidney beans (tinned or ready cooked) -Butter -Runner beans or peas

  1. Preheat your oven to 200C. Wash and poke holes in your potatoes and bake in the oven for about 1-2 hours.
  2. To make the kidney bean dish, slice the onion up thinly. Fry gently in a pan of olive oil. Dice the garlic and add it to the pan before tipping in the tomatoes. Bring to the boil and stir the ingredients together. Add the kidney beans to warm them through.
  3. Boil a pan of water and cook sliced runner beans or peas. Drain.
  4. Remove the potatoes from the oven and cut in half. Mash each half with a generous amount of butter. Add the greens to the side of the plate along with the kidney bean dish. Enjoy. Store the left over kidney bean gloop in the fridge for up to three days in a sealed container.

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February Sowings

List of edibles you could start sowing indoors in February:

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Cucumbers: Passandra, Marketmore, Crystal Lemon.  For more information on planting cucumbers, visit my cucumber page: Cucumbers

Calabrese Broccoli – Ironman F1 – Calabrese Broccoli

Cauliflower – All Year Round

Spinach – Emilia and Barbados Salad – Spinach

Peppers – Californian Wonder

Aubergine – Black Beauty Aubergine

Rocket – Salad – Rocket

Onions – bulbs (outdoors under cover) and seeds

Shallots – seeds

Brussels Sprouts and Brukale – Maximus and Petite Posy Brussels Sprouts

Lettuce Salad – Lettuce

Tomatoes – Shirley, Gardner’s Delight, Sungold, Losetto…

Radishes – Salad – Radish

First early potatoes (outdoors under cover)- e.g. Swift, Red Duke of York, Epicure, Rocket The MIGHTY Potato

Garlic (outdoors) Garlic

Herbs indoors

Beetroot – Bolthardy

Spring Onions

Cabbages – Caserta

Oriental greens – e.g. komatsuna, pak choi, mizuna, mitzuna)

Okra

Cape Gooseberries

Rhubarb (forcing time) Rhubarb

Broadbeans – Masterpiece Green Long Pod, Aquadulce Broad Beans

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I’m bound to have missed lots – anyone got any ideas to share??

 

Garlic

Garlic, or allium sativum, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Close relations include the onion, leek, shallot, chive and rakkyo. As with all members of the onion family, garlic releases sulphurous compounds, mostly allicin, when it is cut – or nibbled by a curious animal. Releasing these odours ensures that only a small munch is eaten rather than a feasting. Despite this, garlic has been consumed by humans for over 7,000 years.

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Garlic is native to central Asia. The use of garlic in China has been dated back to 2000 BC. It was consumed by ancient Greek and Roman soldiers, sailors and the rural classes. Alexander Neckham, a writer in the 12th century, wrote about garlic being a ‘palliative for the heat of the sun in field labour’. Garlic was placed by the ancient Greeks on the piles of stones at crossroads as a supper for Hecate. Garlic was invoked as deities by the Egyptians at the taking of oaths. Garlic has also been recorded to be part of a cure for smallpox and for curing some cases of edema singlehandedly.

In England, garlic was supposed to have been grown from 1548 but was quite rare in the British cuisine, being a far more common use in Mediterranean culinary. However, garlic has become a staple in most households as a form of flavour due to our experimentation with global cookery. It was not until the Renaissance period that England included garlic in their medicine chests, and it was used for treatment of toothache, constipation, dropsy and plague. By the World Wars, garlic was accepted by the English medicinally for using as an antiseptic to prevent gangrene.

This is an interesting picture I found on ‘AllicinFacts’. It is a table showing the historical uses of garlic in medicine over the centuries in different cultures.

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In Europe, many cultures have used garlic for spiritual protection, owing to its reputation as a potent preventative medicine. European folk beliefs considered it a powerful ward against demons, werewolves and vampires. To ward off vampires, garlic could be worn on the body, hung in windows, or rubbed on chimneys and keyholes to prevent them from entering. In Iranian countries which celebrate Nowruz  (Persian calendar New Year) and Central Asian countries, garlic is one of the items in a Seven-Seen table, a traditional New Year’s display. In some Buddhist traditions, garlic,  along with the other five ‘pungent spices’, is understood to stimulate sexual and aggressive drives to the detriment of meditation practice. In Mahayana Buddhism, monks and nuns are prohibited from consuming garlic or other pungent spices such as chili, which are deemed as being earthly pleasures and are viewed as promoting aggression due to their pungency.

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It may be tempting not to grow your own garlic. A whole bed donated to it can take up room and it is cheap and easy to buy anywhere. However – garlic is a good companion crop: it can be planted amongst other crops to ward of pests with its strong smell. For example, it is supposed to repel flea beetle so try planting some around your orientals or brassicas if they are suffering. It is also meant to ward off carrot fly so pop some in near your root crops around the edges. It fits into most places. We have lots planted under our blackcurrant bushes. It will keep in the ground for a long time like root crops or potatoes but it will also keep once harvested indoors in a cool, dry, dark place. Homegrown garlic is far more stronger tasting and smelling and the white bulbs you dig up will be beautiful compared to any supermarket variety. The increased fresh taste of it means you need less bulbs for your dishes to taste incredible, meaning you are being more economical after all despite the cheapness of garlic in your local shop.

Garlic likes to be planted in a sunny, free-draining patch. You will buy either individual cloves or a whole head of garlic. If it is the latter, separate the garlic cloves and plant them directly during October or November or February or March. They will be ready for harvesting in the summer months, from May to September. You want to try to sow it in the autumn as it will be larger and slightly earlier than ones sown in February or March. To sow, put them 7cm deep with the flat base downwards, allowing 15cm between them, rows 20cm apart. When flowers appear, snap them off so that energy is directed towards the bulbs to make them grow bigger. The flowered garlic heads I feed to my pigs.

To harvest, pull the plants from June as green garlic for immediate use in the kitchen or wait for a while until the leaves brown to peel back the soil to see if there are large bulbs ready for digging up. Once pulled up, dry them in the sun for a day or two, turning them over so that both sides benefit from the light. Store them indoors somewhere cool.

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All members of the onion family are vulnerable to rust. Crop rotation is the best answer to this problem.

Garlic is famous for being antibacterial, blood-twining, sprit lifting, cholesterol lowering and detoxifying. Legend says that garlic bestows a lucky charm upon those that eat it as well as protection and good fortune. It discourages the devil and restores lost souls. Sounds like a magic plant!

A 2013, a study concluded that garlic preparations may effectively lower total cholesterol by 11–23 mg/dL and LDL cholesterol by 3–15 mg/dL, if taken for longer than two months. The same analysis found that garlic had a positive effect on HDL cholestreol and no significant effect on blood levels suggesting that garlic preparations were generally well tolerated with very few side effects by all. A 2014 meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies found that garlic consumption is associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer in the Korean population.

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When cooking with garlic, the simple trick to remember is that the finer you chop, the stronger the flavour. Raw garlic has the most beneficial qualities; cooking diminishes them slightly but there is no need to panic, it is just as good for you if slightly less. I use cooked garlic in quite a lot of recipes. Along with onions, it is the base for a flavoured sauce. A classic is to fry some sliced onion in oil until it is golden brown, to add one or two diced cloves of garlic along with some tinned tomatoes and then to add some pre-cooked beans (kidney, butter bean, chickpea etc.) to make a vegetarian meal to have alongside some rice, potatoes or pasta. I use cooked garlic in pizza toppings, bolognese and lasagne, curries, stews, pie fillings… It is a cooking ingredient I rarely go without. I am also a big fan of raw garlic, seeing as I am a humous-monster. Another recipe I was taught by my mum that uses raw garlic is eggy spaghetti – a sort of carbonara styled dish using egg yolks instead of cheese sauce, raw garlic and salt and pepper for seasoning. In Italy, it is common to have this dish with chilli and garlic instead of egg yolks but we have used this delightful meal when we have had a few too many chicken eggs and it works a treat and will pack a protein punch for a vegetarian. Cut some ham or left over bacon up and sprinkle it on top for a meat eater.

If you keep chickens along with your kitchen garden, then this is a great recipe for using up egg yolks. Don’t discard the egg whites – put them in an old yoghurt pot and label with the date. Use them up in a week in a meringue of pavlova, if you have time.

You want the spaghetti to still be quite hot when you stir in the egg yolks and garlic as it is better if the yolks slightly cook but you don’t want them to turn into scrambled eggs so be wary. Remember: the finer you dice the garlic, the stronger it will taste.

Eggy Garlic Spaghetti 

(Serves 6)

-About 500g spaghetti – 6-8 egg yolks – 2 large cloves of garlic, diced very finely – Salt and pepper, for flavour – Peas, runner beans, broccoli or a mixture of salad leaves to serve – Ham, bacon or Ketchup to serve, optional

  1. Bring a large pan of water to the boil. Put the spaghetti in it and allow it to simmer for about ten minutes, until the pasta is well cooked. Drain and set aside, keeping it warm.
  2. Whisk the egg yolks and garlic together in a separate bowl. Add the mixture to the hot spaghetti and stir until thoroughly combined (add more egg yolks if needed. You want the paste to look yellow and for it to cover the spaghetti). Sprinkle a tiny bit of salt and pepper over the top and stir in.
  3. Serve with cooked vegetables or salad. If you care for it, cut some ham or bacon up into little pieces and sprinkle over the top. Offer Ketchup for the kids… and me.

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Recipe: Fried courgette-tomato sauce with spaghetti

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This is a fancy version of my easy-peasy pasta and tinned tomatoes (Salad – Rocket), a sort of Mediterranean pasta dish. I have made it with courgettes and red pepper before but as I have so many courgettes at the moment and not a single red pepper grown yet, we had this dish the other night minus the pepper and it was just as delicious and exotic. Lovely and flavoursome. It used up lots of courgette. Serve it with lots of runner beans if you have a glut of those too!

Fried courgette-tomato sauce with spaghetti 

(Serves 6)

– 400g spaghetti – Olive oil – 1 onion, sliced – 2 garlic cloves, diced – 3 medium sized courgettes, sliced into circles – 1/2 red pepper, sliced into small pieces (optional) – 200g kale, swiss chard or spinach, washed with stalks removed and leaves shredded (optional) – 900g tinned tomatoes – Salt and pepper (optional) – Grated cheddar cheese, to serve – Peas or runner beans, to serve

  1. Bring a large pan of water to the boil. Put the spaghetti into the water and turn it down to simmer for ten minutes or until the pasta is soft and cooked. Drain and pour a small amount of olive oil over the top, stirring it in. Set aside.
  2. In a frying pan, fry the onion in olive oil over a high flame before turning it down as it starts to brown to simmer. Add the cut up courgettes and red pepper to the frying pan and leave until starting to char.
  3. Once the vegetables are slightly brown, add the tinned tomatoes and diced garlic, stirring them in. Add the kale/ swiss chard/ spinach and turn the heat up to high, stirring. Allow the greens to cook for a couple of minutes before turning down to simmer for about 5-10 minutes, adding the salt and pepper beforehand.
  4. Meanwhile, grate up a generous amount of cheddar cheese to serve and put another pan of water onto boil. Once the water has reached boiling point, cook peas or sliced runner beans to serve alongside.
  5. Serve the sauce over the top of the spaghetti with cheddar cheese and green vegetables on top.

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Cucumbers

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‘Passandra’

Cucumbers (Cucurbitaceae family, or gourd) originated from Asia where it spread over its borders around 4000 years ago, becoming eventually the fourth most widely cultivated vegetable in the world. Long, green cylinders that are on every shop shelf around the country, the cucumber is a strangely popular vegetable – strange because it is more fruit-like in its appearance and watery, cooling taste. It is the ultimate ingredient for a summer salad or a glass of pimms.

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‘Marketmore’

They originated in the wild in India. Around 2-3 millennia BC they started to be cultivated and infused into the rich Indian cuisine. It spread through trading with Middle Eastern and European countries.

The Romans embraced cucumbers heartily. Their ease at producing them made them popular amongst the nobility and lower classes alike – Emperor Tiberius declared he would eat a cucumber every day and during the summer months his gardens were tended just for vegetables and in the winter cucumbers were grown in moveable bed frames that were moved to expose the sun or illuminated with mirror-stones. In Rome, cucumbers were also used in the medical profession, over 40 various remedies included them. They were used to treat everything, from bad eyesight, scorpion bites, infertile women who wished for children were encouraged to carry them around their waists.

After the end of the Roman Empire, cucumbers decreased in popularity and it was not until the court of Charlemagne in the 8th or 9th century that cucumbers resurfaced. Cucumbers arrived in England during the 14th century where they were not popular until the mid-17th century. During the 18th century, the expansion of cucumbers across North America halted when several medicinal journals claimed that uncooked cucumbers and similar vegetables produced serious health risks. Discouraged by this theory, cucumbers were abandoned on the continent until the 19th century when their safety and nutrition was confirmed. In 2010, worldwide production of cucumbers was 57.5 million tonnes.

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‘Crystal Apple’

The cucumber is a creeping vine that bears cylindrical fruits. There are three types of cucumber: slicing, pickling and burpless. Cucumbers enclose seeds and develop from a flower and are botanically speaking classified as pepoes (a type of botanical berry, like courgettes I posted about previously). In this way they are very much like tomatoes and squashes (same family) as they are often also treated as vegetables.

Cucumbers are usually more than 90% water. This high water content means that they are low in most essential nutrients, the only notable one really being vitamin K, 16% of our daily recommended value.

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Cucumber sandwich means summer

Cucumbers can be difficult to keep healthy. They are fussy about temperature changes and like to be kept in a humid environment, watered well but not too much and they really do hate being potted on, they don’t like to be disturbed. They are also quite hungry little plants so remember to feed them every fortnight if possible. Common diseases include powdery mildew and cucumber mosaic virus (see Courgettes for more information about these two diseases). The worst pest is the sap-sucking red spider mite that attacks the foilage on the cucumber plants (and other greenhouse plants) which eventually causes a mottled look followed by death of the plant. Biological control is the only remedy as the mite is immune to most pesticides.

Cucumbers have been bred to remove their natural bitterness and most supermarket varieties have a watery, diluted taste and consistency. They can be pickled, cooked and eaten raw. They are perfect for salads or as side dishes, such as combining them with yoghurt alongside curries where their cooling taste takes the heat off spicy dishes. Once pickled they can be kept in the fridge for a few days but are recommended best eaten fresh (‘Letith’s Vegetable Bible’). You cannot freeze cucumbers successfully due to the high water content. If you have a glut and cannot eat them all, pickling or including them in a chutney is your best way of using them up and preserving them that little bit longer. If you ever do produce a bitter cucumber, try peeling the skin off, the inside should be fine.

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‘Crystal Apple’

Varieties I have tried: ‘Marketmore’ – Sow: February-April. Traditional, cylinder shaped, dark green produce with bumpy skin that smooths during growing. The skin has a stronger taste than shop bought ones but I quite like it; I find it more flavoursome. The taste is not bitter unless the watering is inconsistent. Do not remove the male flowers on this plant. Suitable for outdoor and indoor growing.

‘Crystal Apple’ – Sow: April-June. Suitable for indoor and outdoor growing, this plant produces yellow coloured balls – literally apple-shaped cucumbers. They have a lighter, crisper taste than ‘Marketmore’. They are gorgeous and quite small too if you want to eat a whole cucumber in one meal.

‘Passandra’ – Sow: February-April. A new type I am trying out this year. Cylinder shaped, light green, smooth skin. They are advertised as being disease resistant. They taste delicious and are my little brother’s favourite. They look a little more like the ones we have bought from Sainsbury’s and are a safe option for starting to grow your own cucumbers, especially if you are growing for a family. The ‘Passandra’ variety have been our most productive so far this year.

Sow indoors, 0.5cm (1/4 inch) deep, on edge, in pots of compost. I like to sow mine in tall yoghurt pots (think Yeo Valley yoghurt styled containers, tall ones that give the roots lots of space to grow). Puncture a hole in the bottom to let the water drip out so that the plant is not drowning). Water the plant well and place in a temperature of 21-24C (70-75F). When mine have germinated, I like to place them on a warm, sunny windowsill during the day time and keeping them on the floor at night-time when the temperatures dip. When the plants have grown 3-4 leaves, harden them off in slightly cooler conditions (I move mine to a cooler room in the house to begin with). Some varieties can be planted outside by the brave (I have tried and failed with ‘Marketmore’ last year, never again, I will stick to indoor growing after losing 11 plants over various months…) at 60cm (2 inches) apart. Otherwise, pot them on inside a greenhouse in large containers up to their lower leaves. Water well and stake them with canes to give the tendrils something to cling onto as they grow and climb. Give them a weak, liquid comfrey feed every couple of weeks to encourage the growth of new flowers and to keep them healthy. Once they start producing, don’t be tempted to leave all of the cucumbers on the plants to become ginormous. Keep picking them at a medium size and they will be encouraged to produce more fruit so that you get a constant supply over the harvest season. With any luck, you may be picking them from July to October.

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There are plenty of ways to use a cucumber: add to any dish that requires a salad in circular discs, make cucumber sandwiches, cucumber and tuna and mayonnaise sandwiches, cheese and cucumber sandwiches, shred them and serve it in Chinese pancakes along with crispy duck and plum sauce, shred them and put them in a stir fry, the classic Greek salad, or as, I said earlier, add to yoghurt and eat alongside a curry – cucumber raita.

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Matte Paneer Curry
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Cucumber Raita

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Matte Paneer Curry with Cucumber Raita

Paneer is an Indian cheese with a sort of rubbery texture that can be bought it most supermarkets. Do not be put of by its look, it tastes amazing and is my favourite curry. ‘Matte’ translates as ‘peas’. To make ‘Saage Paneer curry’, replace the peas with spinach (‘saage’ means ‘spinach’). For meat eaters, replace the paneer with some freid chicken and for a vegan replace with some cooked chickpeas. You can also replace the coconut cream or milk with about 100-200g ground cashew nuts – it just thickens the curry a little.

(Serves 6)

For the curry: – 1 large onion, finely sliced – Olive oil or ghee, to fry in – 1 tbsp mustard seeds – 1 tbsp nigella seeds – 1 tsp fenugreek seeds – Handful of curry leaves (if available) – 2 large garlic cloves, finely diced – 1/4 tsp ground cumin – 1/4 tsp ground coriander – 1/2 tsp Garam masala – 1tsp ground turmeric – 2x 400g can of tinned tomatoes  – 225g paneer cheese – 250ml can/packet coconut milk or cream – 100g peas

For the cucumber raita: -1/2 cucumber – 200g Greek or natural plain yoghurt

To serve: – 300g brown or white basmati rice – Popadoms, chapatis, naan bread, or a mixture of all three – Mango, lime or tomato chutney – Shredded lettuce and other salad like chopped up tomatoes or plain cucumber, optional

  1. Oil a large frying pan. Peel and slice the onion into thin strips and place in the pan. Heat for a few minutes until the onion turns golden brown before turning down to simmer. Add the mustard seeds, nigella seeds, fenegreek seeds and curry leaves, stirring in the ingredients to combine. Allow the contents of the pan to simmer for a few minutes to absorb the flavours.
  2. Add the other spices: cumin, ground coriander, turmeric and garam masala. Stir in and leave to simmer for a few minutes to combine flavours.
  3. Add the tinned tomatoes, stir in and turn the heat up to high. Add the coconut milk or cream and stir in again – this thickens the curry a little.
  4. Cut the paneer cheese into small cubes. Add to the curry followed by the peas.
  5. Once the curry has thickened slightly and the peas have cooked, turn it down to a simmer until you are ready to serve.
  6. To make the cucumber raita: cut the cucumber into discs and then cut crosses through those discs to make 4 triangles. Put them into a large bowl and stir in the yoghurt until it is combined. Set aside until ready to serve.
  7. Serve the Matte Paneer curry along with the cucumber raita and rice, any Indian bread, chutney, side curries and salad you like. Try my Red Lentil, Carrot and Courgette Dahl Courgettes and my Curried Potatoes and Bread maker Naan Bread.

Happy Indian banquet!

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Mix the Matte Paneer curry with other side dishes
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Top with the cucumber raita for a crispy, cooling accompaniment for the spicy curry

 

Calabrese Broccoli

Calabrese broccoli, an edible green crop from the group Brassica oleracea, from the cabbage family is harvested for its flowering head. Broccoli has large flowering heads, usually green in colour, branching out from a stalk in a tree-like structure from a thick stalk, which is edible, surrounded by giant leaves. The growing style resembles a cauliflower very much.

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‘Ironman’ Calabrese Broccoli – July 2016

The world ‘broccoli’ comes from the Italian word ‘broccolo’, translating as the ‘flowering crest of a cabbage’ and is a diminutive form of ‘brocco’, meaning small snail or sprout. The broccoli we know today is the result of careful breeding of cultivated leafy cole crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in around the 6th century BC. Since the Roman era, broccoli has been considered a unique ingredient in Italy. It is considered that broccoli was first brought to England from Antwerp during the 18th century. Broccoli was first introduced to the USA by Southern Italian migrants but was not well-known until as late as the 1920s where it was written people ate the heads ‘like cauliflowers and the stems like asparagus’.

Calabrese broccoli was named after Calabria in Italy and is what most people refer to when they say ‘broccoli’, rather than sprouting broccoli or purple sprouting broccoli. Cabbages were being grown in what is now Turkey and spreading through the Mediterranean. During around 8th century BC, migrants to Italy supposedly brought the purple sprouting broccoli that established itself in Tuscany. The Romans were quite taken by the vegetable and it became a standard favourite in Rome where the Calabrese variety was developed and adored. Roman farmers named it ‘the five green fingers of Jupiter’. Apicius, cookbook author of ancient Rome, prepared broccoli by first boiling it and then brushing it ‘with a mixture of cumin and coriander seeds, chopped onion plus a few drops of oil and sun-made wine’. The Romans served the broccoli with creamy sauces, flavoured with various herbs and cooked it in wine. Roman Emperor Tiberius’s(14 BC-37 BC) son loved broccoli excessively. Excluding all other foods, he gorged on broccoli prepared in the Apicius manner above for an entire month. When his urine turned bright green and his father scolded him severely, he finally abandoned his beloved broccoli. Catherine de Medici of Tuscany may have been the first to introduce broccoli to France when she married Henry II in 1533. She arrived in France with her Italian chefs and armfuls of vegetables, including broccoli. However, the first mention of broccoli in French history was not until 1560.

The first mention of the vegetable in literature in England names it as ‘sprouting cauliflower’ or ‘Italian Asparagus’. It was not particularly popular when it arrived during the 18th century. Commercial cultivation of broccoli in the USA can be traced to the D’Arrigo brothers, immigrants from Messina, Italy, whose company made some tentative plantings in San Jose, California in 1922. A few crates were initially shipped to Boston, where there was a thriving Italian immigrant culture in the North End. The broccoli business boomed, with the D’Arrigo’s brand name ‘Andy Boy’, named after Stephano’s two-year-old son, supported by advertisements on the radio publicly advertised the green vegetable. Nowadays, broccoli is not so much the ‘stranger’ to the kitchen garden as it was once called by an English writer. In 2013, global production on broccoli was recorded at 22.3 million tonnes, China and India accounting for 76% of its production. Spain, Mexico and Italy were the secondary producers, 0.5 million tonnes annually.

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Broccoli can produce poorly in hot summer weather, growing best at an average 18-23C (64-73F). When a cluster of flowers have grown in the middle, large enough to eat but still green and not turning brown or bolting, the Calabrese broccoli is ready for harvesting.

This is my first year growing a Calabrese broccoli and I was amazed at the results, expecting it to be incredibly difficult and unlikely to ever grow a large enough floret to eat, much like cauliflowers (I harvest mini-ones, not the full sized ones you find in the supermarkets otherwise they will have bolted if I leave them to get bigger). But I have managed to pick a fair few biggish ones, multiple at a time to prevent bolting and because they were still only I would say medium sized but they looked and tasted like proper broccoli! I was very chuffed. The variety I have grown this year is ‘Ironman’, (Sow: January-June, Harvest: June-November).

Sow the seed 0.5cm (1/4inch) deep in a tray of compost. Keep moist and at a warm temperature. I grew mine in a warm bedroom in January and some later ones in March. Once they had germinated, I put them on a sunny windowsill during the day time and then put them on the floor near a radiator at night time again when it was dark and chilly. Once the plants are large enough to handle, gradually accustom them to cooler conditions (I moved them out of the heated bedroom to a cooler windowsill permanently until they were large enough to plant outside). Transplant into well-fertilised soil that has been Blood, Fish and Boned, manured, composted and mulched. Transplant 45cm (18inches) apart, allow 60cm (2inches) between rows. Plant firmly up to the lowest leaves and water well (all brassicas require constant watering). As frost will most likely still be loitering, fleece well for the next few months until all risks of freezing temperatures have gone. Once you remove the fleece, you need to net the broccoli with insect netting to protect your crops from birds, but most particularly cabbage whites that will wreck havoc. It is best to do this immediately after you have removed the fleece.

To harvest, cut the heads from the plants with a fair chunk of stalk and you should get some smaller side-florets following on from your main harvest. They need to be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow. Calabrese broccoli is best steamed or boiled: bring a pan of water to the boil. Cut the broccoli florets from the stem, then, using a knife, shred the tougher outside bits of the stalk and cut up the tender inside into match-sticks. Place them both in the pan of water, turning down the heat and leaving to simmer for a few minutes until tender – you don’t want them to be rock solid but you don’t want to leave them too long or they will be a pile of mush and turn tasteless. The other way of cooking broccoli that I like is to add them to a stir-fry. They make a delicious addition and if you do not care for boiled stalks then this is the way to eat them as they accompany an oriental dish wonderfully. The other way is eating it raw, which I have done, but it is for those who really like the strong flavouring of brassicas. Store any cut raw broccoli wrapped in a plastic bag in the fridge and use it as soon as possible, within a week of harvesting.

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Broccoli is an excellent source of vitamin C (20% Daily Value) and vitamins K, A and E. It may be important to note now that not a lot of vegetables include such a significant amount of vitamin K. There are also many nutrients in broccoli including potassium, zinc, fibre, beta carotene, calcium, iron, plus many other essential benefiting nutrients, including carotenoid compounds lutein and zeaxanith. This vegetable can benefit our health, well-being and lifestyle in many ways due to its powerful combination of vitamins and nutrients. It can support and strengthen many areas of the body, such as the digestive system, liver, eyes, heart, skin, and the immune system. Broccoli has been suggested to aid the body in fighting major diseases including cancer and heart disease. This vegetable is rich in energy boosting vitamins that can decrease stress levels and influence concentration, alertness and vitality. Raw broccoli contains several amounts of B vitamins and manganese as well as reducing levels of sulforaphane. However, cooking it does remove these particular nutrients so if you like broccoli raw as well as cooked, then dig in.

Broccoli could potentially help to reduce cholesterol and high-blood pressures due to its nutritional content of enzymes, as well as osteoporosis, heart disease and cancer, as mentioned previously. There has also been research into the possibility of broccoli preventing adult-onset diabetes. Chromium, found in broccoli, boosts the ability of insulin to perform better in people with slight glucose intolerance.

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Eat your broccoli boiled or steamed with any dish that you would eat a cooked green: pasta, rice dishes, roast dinners, it goes very well with cheese… Funnily enough, recalling broccoli as a kid, I remember loving it with spaghetti Bolognese (excluding the mince) with lots of cheddar cheese melted on top of it. Try adding broccoli to your cauliflower cheese, along with boiled courgettes and perhaps potatoes/sweet potatoes if you have any hanging around – a delicious mix.

Fry it in oil and other flavourings for a stir fry and serve with noodles…

Roast or bake it along with carrots and parsnips to serve with your roast chicken and potatoes…

Or try this combination for a simple, hearty and nutritious weekday supper: Sausages and Rice with Vegetables.

Mix and match the vegetables and accompaniments for anything you like. For myself, I eat Glamorgan sausages (vegetarian, containing leeks, potatoes and Welsh cheddar cheese wrapped up in a breadcrumb coating) while my family eat organic free-range sausages. You can also swap the rice for potatoes if you have an influx of them too.

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Sausages/Glamorgan Sausages with Rice and Boiled Vegetables

(Serves 6)

– 6 -12 organic sausages/ 6-12 glamorgan sausages – 400g rice – 1 large (or equivalent) broccoli – 1 large cauliflower – 150g peas – 100g kale, de-stalked – 4 medium sized courgettes – 4 medium sized carrots – To serve, optional, redcurrant jelly, cranberry sauce, mint jelly, mustard, gravy, sliced onions fried in olive oil

  1. Preheat oven 200C. Put the sausages on a non-stick baking tray and leave in the oven for about 15 minutes until starting brown on bottom. Turn them over and cook them for about another 15 minutes until brown on top.
  2. Bring a pan of water to the boil. Tip in the rice and turn the heat down to simmer. Leave for about 20 minutes, until the rice has absorbed all of the water (stir in occasionally to encourage it). Once the water has gone, take off the heat.
  3. Bring another large pan/lots of smaller pans of water to the boil for the vegetables: cut the broccoli into florets, take the tough outer skin off with a sharp knife and cut the stalk into strips. Put into a pan of boiled water and turn down to a simmer. Cook for about 8-10 minutes or until tender. Cut up the cauliflower into florets and cook it like the broccoli. Place the stripped kale into a pan of boiled water and turn it down to a simmer, leaving it to cook for about five minutes. Cut the courgettes into small circles and put in a pan of boiled water, turning it down to simmer, for about 8 minutes. Peel the carrots and cut them into circles and put in a pan of boiling water, turning it down to simmer, for about 10-12 minutes. Cook the peas in boiled water for about 2 minutes.
  4. Once the variation of vegetables are done, drain them all.
  5. Serve the sausages with the rice and assorted vegetables and any optional additions desired.

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Glamorgan Sausage  with rice, boiled broccoli, courgettes, cauliflower and peas