Tree Cabbage

I planted a couple of years ago seeds from the Real Seed Company called Tree Cabbage, a perennial plant.

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This is what they say on their website: http://www.realseeds.co.uk/cabbage.html

‘This unusual Spanish heirloom has absolutely enormous leaves – and it looks like a Kale rather than a cabbage; it makes no head, just a tall stalk with  a loose head on top. You simply take the huge leaves a few at a time to eat all year round. You can even keep it going for two years or more! Just cut it back when it tries to flower – it makes new growth, ideal for fresh cabbage in spring during the ‘hungry gap’. You can use it as cooked greens just as normal. But Tree Cabbage like this is also a key ingredient in the classic Spanish dish ‘Caldo Gallego’ – which is a delicious leaf, bean, and meat stew. Grows like cabbage, harvested like a kale . Very, very rare. Can be a short-lived perennial vegetable if the flowers are removed as they form.’

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This grew really well for us in our dry sandy soil. Great germination and surviving results. It is harvestable throughout the hungry gap, just what you need in England when you might struggle to keep your greens going. It tastes just like kale.

But even better, the poultry love it. We pick a bunch of it every chance we get to go the the garden and drop it off in their run and they completely destroy it within minutes. Very nutritious for them!

Every time you pick the leaves, more grow. One or two plants could easily feed a family – we’ve got goodness knows how many because I went crazy with sowing them, thinking none would germinate. But that means we have a great supply for our poultry throughout the cold season when there is little grass for them to munch in their run.

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When the plants started flowering and going to seed, I thought that meant that they were over. Instead, they made more leaves and have kept on going this year.

We have been harvesting the seeds and using it as a replacement for mustard seeds (Mustard) in curries and other dishes as it from the same family, Brassica.

They are winter cold hardy, pulling through the frosts without any protection.

They might be exhausted this season, or they might survive for another harvest. Anyway, they are a good investment.

If you are a little unsure about the cabbage/kale taste, of it just boiled, then try adding it shredded to stews, curries stir-fries: Garden Stir-Fry – the way to use up unwanted veg

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Aubergine (Eggplant) Curry

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Orach

Atriplex is a plant genus of 250–300 species, known by the common names of saltbush, orach or orache. It belongs to the subfamily Chenopodioideae of the family Amaranthaceae. The genus is quite variable and widely distributed. It includes many seashore and desert plants, as well as plants found in moist environments. The generic name originated in Latin and was applied by Pliny the Elder to the edible orachs. The name orach is derived from the Latin ‘aurago’ meaning golden herb. The name saltbush derives from the fact that the plants retain salt in their leaves.

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A native of Europe and Siberia, orach is possibly one of the more ancient cultivated plants. It is grown in Europe and the northern plains of the United States. A cool season plant, orach is a warm season alternative to spinach that is less likely to bolt. It can be eaten fresh or cooked. The flavour is reminiscent of spinach and is often combined with sorrel leaves. The seeds are also edible and a source of vitamin A. They are ground into a meal and mixed with flour for making breads. Seeds are also used to make a blue dye.

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An annual herb, orach comes in four common varieties, with white orach being the most common. White orach has more pale green to yellow leaves rather than white. There is also red orach with dark red stems and leaves (the one we grow) Green orach, or Lee’s Giant orach, is a vigorous varietal with an angular branching habit and rounder leaves of dark green. Less commonly grown is a copper colored orach variety.

I purchased our red orach seeds from Real Seeds Company that sells lots of heritage and exotic seeds. I planted them out last year and they self-seeded and re-grew this year.

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Orach contains significant levels of vitamin C and K, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, carotenes, protein, anthocyanins, zinc and selenium tryptophan, and dietary fibre. Orach improves the digestion with the dietary fibre, improves the function of kidneys with its diuretic and laxative effect. Orach contains antioxidant compounds that prevent cancer from developing, the proteins, minerals, and vitamins stored in orach can help everything from hormonal regulation to enzymatic reactions that are required to keep our body functioning and boosting our metabolism. The high levels of iron and calcium boost red blood cell creation, circulation, and oxygenation of the tissues and organ systems. Orach possesses almost twice the amount of vitamin C as lemons or kiwis which are often considered the top fruits for acquiring vitamin C quickly, making Orach a very attractive plant if you want to keep your immune system running.

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Similar to spinach, but less than spinach, orach does contains significant levels of oxalic acid. This means that if you suffer from kidney stones, gall stones or gout, it might be a good idea to avoid orach and find these nutritional elements elsewhere and for others to eat small amounts of it raw.

As the seeds contain some protein, it is a good plant for vegetarians to grow as it provides some homegrown protein to add to their daily meals.

You can eat the seeds and leaves raw, or you can cook them. Cook the leaves like you would do to spinach. For the seeds, they can be fried or boiled. Add them to a salad or any other dish that includes grains like rice or quinoa or bulgar wheat. My first taste of the seeds was when I added them to a tomato risotto and they were really nice.

Broad Beans – Tomato Risotto. Add the orach seeds when the rice is starting to absorb the liquid. You can omit the broad beans if you like and just make a plain tomato risotto.

Here is another recipe I made including orach seeds…

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Garlic Mushrooms, Leaf Beet and toasted Orach Seeds

(Serves 2)

-200g brown rice -1 knob of butter -6 button mushrooms, finely sliced -1 large garlic clove, diced -6 leaves of leaf beet, perpetual leaf spinach, spinach or swiss chard, de-stalked -2 handfuls of orach seeds -Runner beans or another vegetable, to serve

  1. Bring a pan of water to the boil. Add the rice and turn the heat down to a simmer for about half an hour or until the rice has absorbed the water and is cooked. Leave to one side.
  2. Bring another pan of water to the boil and add the runner beans or another green vegetable you would like to serve with it. Remove from the heat when cooked, drain and leave to one side.
  3. Put the butter in a frying pan. Turn on the flame and leave it to melt, greasing the pan with it. Add the finely sliced mushrooms and fry for a minute before reducing the flame to simmer. Add the leaf beet followed by the diced garlic. Stir. Add the orach seeds allow them to toast a little before stirring them into the mixture.
  4. Remove from the heat and serve over spoonfuls of rice and vegetables. Refrigerate left-overs.

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Leeks

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Leeks are a member of the Allium family, making them related to garlic and onions but they have a much subtler, sweeter flavour. They can be used to enrich soups (think leek and potato soup) or stews and they partner well with potato or cheese (recipe later on). The edible part of the plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths, what we would call the stem or stalk. Historically many scientific names have been used for leeks but they are now all treated as cultivars of Allium ampeloprasum.

Leeks have been cultivated at least since the time of the ancient Egyptians and are depicted in surviving tomb paintings from that period. Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt as well as wall carvings and drawings, led Zohary and Hopf to conclude the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet from at least the second millennium BCE onwards. They also allude to surviving texts that show it had been also grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the second millennium BCE. The Romans considered the leek a superior vegetable and Emperor Nero got through so many he gained the nickname Porrophagus (leek eater). He is reported to have thought that eating leeks would improve the quality of his singing voice.

The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales worn along with the daffodil (in Welsh the daffodil is known as ‘Peter’s leek’, Cenhinen Bedr) on St David’s Day. According to one legend, King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. Shakespeare refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an ‘ancient tradition’ in Henry V. The 1985 and 1990 British £1 bear the design of a leek in a coronet, representing Wales. It is used in the cap badge of the Welsh Guards, a regiment within the Household Division of the British Army.

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Start sowing early or late harvesting leeks in small seed-trays undercover in good compost March-April, 3cm apart. Plant out in June or July. It is a particular process: tease the leek (should be about 20cm tall), make a hole 15cmish deep with a pencil and lower the leek gently into it, being careful of the roots. Keep the plants about 15cm from neighbours, 30cm apart. Fill the holes with water – it is important to water baby leeks frequently.

If you are after a larger ratio of white to green, earth the leeks up a little to encourage this.

Harvest September-May (earlier for baby leeks, pick them the size of spring onions during the summer months). Leeks are good hungry gap fillers during winter as they can survive the cold frosty months.

Leave a few to flower through the late spring and into the summer for beauty and seed for the following season but be aware that they won’t replicate the original variety unless that is the only variety you are growing.

The variety I sowed this year was ‘Blue Lake’ bought from the Real Seeds Company and they did really well and I will be sowing them again next year. Other popular varieties are ‘King Richard’ (very early), ‘Monstruoso de Carentan’ (early), ‘D’Hiver de Saint-Victor’ (late), ‘Saint Victor’ (late) and ‘Hannibal’ (early).

I planted my leeks along with my celery and celeriac as I read once that they made good intercropping veg – they both like damp soil so I suspect it makes sense. Otherwise plant them where you are sowing roots or other onions or after potatoes is recommended.

Rust (orange or brown blotches on the leaves) can affect your harvest but usually only decoratively. Seaweed or comfrey feed helps prevent it but rotating your crops is the best way of minimising the problem.

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Leeks have a mild, onion-like taste. In its raw state, the vegetable is crunchy and firm. The edible portions of the leek are the white base of the leaves (above the roots and stem base), the light green parts, and to a lesser extent the dark green parts of the leaves. One of the most popular uses is for adding flavor to stock. The dark green portion is usually discarded because it has a tough texture, but it can be sautéed or added to stock. Leeks are typically chopped into slices 5–10 mm thick. The slices have a tendency to fall apart, due to the layered structure of the leek.

To clean your harvest leeks, slit them along the length of the green part at intervals and immerse in cold water to tease out the soil.

Leeks are an excellent source of vitamin C as well as iron and fibre. They provide many of the health-giving benefits associated with garlic and onions, such as promoting the functioning of the blood and the heart.

One recipe I have been using our leeks in this year has been Homity Pie: a traditional British open pie. It is essentially a pastry case containing a mixture of potatoes and leeks with cheese. Its origins go back to Land Girl’s of World War II when the restrictions of rationing made it difficult to come up with a hearty dish to feed the land workers. At one point, the cheese ration was a mere ounce (28g) per person per week. Nowadays, we don’t need to worry about that and using plenty of cheese hides the vegetables from children allergic to green…

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Homity Pie

(Serves 8)

For the pastry:

– 150g plain flour – Pinch of salt – 75g unsalted butter – 1 egg yolk – 1 tbsp cold water

For the filling:

– 350g waxy potatoes, such as ‘Charlottes’ – 10g salted butter – 1 tbsp sunflower oil – 1 large onion, sliced – 1-2 leeks, sliced – 1 large garlic clove, diced – 175g grated cheddar cheese – 1tbsp chopped parsley – 1tbsp thyme leaves – 1 tbsp double cream – Salt and pepper – 3tbsp breadcrumbs – 3tbsp grated parmesan cheese

Make the pastry: In a large bowl, add the flour, salt and butter. Using your fingertips, mix the ingredients together until they resemble fine breadcrumbs. Make a well in the centre and add the egg yolk and the dash of cold water. Using a wooden spoon, bring the ingredients together until they start to form a dough – if it is too dry add more water, too wet add more flour. Once you have made a dough, using your hands, knead it together into a ball. Put to one side while you make the filling.
Preheat the oven 200C. Bring a large pan of water to the boil. Scrub the potatoes and cut them into 2cm pieces and place in the boiling water and leave until cooked through. Drain and set to one side to cool.
Put the butter and oil in a frying pan and add the onion and leek, frying until soft and tender before stirring in the diced garlic and removing from the heat.
In a VERY large bowl, add the potatoes and contents from the frying pan, mixing together with the grated cheddar cheese, parsley, thyme and double cream. Season with salt and pepper.
Line a 20cm tin with baking parchment. Remove the parchment and place the pastry in the centre. Roll it out with a rolling pin so that it is a large circle. Place it inside the tin so that the pastry is evenly going up the sides of the tin halfway all around. Scrape the filling into the pastry case, smoothing down the top. Mix the breadcrumbs and parmesan together and sprinkle over the top.
Cook in the oven for 40 minutes until the pastry is cooked and the top is golden brown. Leave to stand for 5-10 minutes before serving with a leafy salad.

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Salad – Spinach

 

 

 

 

IMG_2085.JPGI better admit it now: I am a big fan of spinach. I eat it pretty much daily, it is my favourite green leaf. I tried it once with houmous slathered thickly on a crust of warm, homemade whole-wheat bread. It became a lunch time favourite and I have not looked back since. It goes very well with lots of meals, raw or cooked (I prefer it raw). Luckily, spinach is easy and quick to grow once you have got it going.

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Last year I planted under the cover of fleece in March the varieties ‘Barbados’ and ‘Emilia’ (February-August sowing times). I did likewise this year with this variety as well as planting in March ‘Samish’ spinach (March-August) which germinated pretty well too.  These are really tasty varieties that I would recommend and should be ready to harvest within a matter of weeks once sown. The sudden heat has made a lot of mine bolt but they are still pickable and edible. I have just sown some more in my runner-bean trenches. When the leaves rot down, they are supposed to provide the beans with nitrogen and the beans in turn provide them with shade. They can be bought at Mr Fothergills, at least but you can find lots of popular spinach varieties everywhere.

Also, at the end of last year, in October we sowed some ‘Turaco’ (August-October) spinach indoors before planting it under the cover of fleece in a trench alongside some winter sown peas. This is a hardier type of spinach ideal for winter sowings. It has been ready to harvest since some time in April but have now bolted quite a lot now (still picking them, though). The leaves are big and dark green and deliciously prolific. It has been a joy to be able to harvest my own spinach again this spring and summer and not to pick up the guilty plastic bag of soggy green mush I usually slip into the trolley at the supermarket.

Sow spinach direct (or indoors before planting out), 2.5 cm / 1″ deep into prepared, fertile soil, allowing 30 cm / 1′ between rows. Keep  well watered and fed as they continue to grow and sow some more every couple of weeks, like you would do for radishes or spring onions, to ensure a continuous crop. If you are sowing outdoors, early sowings will need the protection of a cloche, fleece or a cold-frame. Harvest the leaves when they are around 3cm or so above ground level, to encourage more growth and when each plant has at least four leaves growing.

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Like lettuce, spinach can bolt but it does not taste as strong as poor lettuce does. However, when it bolts, the leaves become tiny and you have to pick quite a few to get a good bunch. Therefore, I would recommend adopting the successional sowing attitude and sowing perhaps a new bunch once a month or every couple of months, depending on how the weather is and what your needs are for fresh salad.

Other ‘spinach type leaves’ I have sown in the past include Swiss chard, a member of the same family, as well as most recently ‘Perpetual Leaf Beet Spinach’ purchased from the Real Seeds Company. I sowed these indoors and have recently planted them out between some purple sprouting broccoli with some radishes for extra companion planting points! They are doing quite well. I have not bothered sowing Swiss chard since I first planted it two years ago in August, I think. It has grown back every summer after dying off over winter and self-sown some babies every year. We have a lot this year, despite my mum digging some up for my sister’s fete this weekend. Swiss chard should only be eaten cooked otherwise it tastes gross. Treat it like you would kale or any other oriental green – rip of  the chunky stem that tastes quite strong and rip the leaves into little pieces before chucking them in a stew, stir fry or on top of a pizza or wilting it down for a side dish.

Spinach is considered to have originated from the Persia, or Iran. It found its way to China during the 7th century when the king of Nepal sent is abroad as a gift. It was brought to Spain by the Moors around the 11th century and was known in England as the ‘Spanish vegetable’ for some time. Compared to most vegetables, spinach is rather new. A sweet historical story is that spinach was the favourite vegetable of Catherine de Medici, alive in the 16th century who left her home in Florence to marry the king of France. She brought her own cooks with her so that they could prepare her spinach dishes just the way she liked them. Now, if a dish is prepared on a bed of spinach, it is called ‘a la Florentine’.

Nutritionally, spinach is high in vitamin K, A, manganese, folate, magnesium, high levels of iron, copper vitamins B1, B2, B6, E, C, calcium, zinc and potassium. Additionally, it is a good source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This mixture of nutrients gives spinach superb status in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory department. However, due to the high oxalate content found in spinach, people are often concerned about consuming too much of this leafy green raw. Oxalates are naturally occurring organic acids found in a wide selection of foods that can interfere with our absorbing of calcium or, ironically, iron, the major nutrient spinach is famous for (thin Popeye). Oxalic acid binds with calcium, making it unusable in our bodies. However, oxalic acids are broken down when heated so steamed or sautéed spinach and when spinach is cooked, nutrients like vitamins A and E, the protein found in the green vegetable and other nutritional benefits are easier for our bodies to absorb. Some of the other nutrients, like vitamin C, folate, potassium, and others, are more plentiful for our bodies when we eat the spinach raw. The iron content does not change whether you decide to eat it cooked or raw. You will absorb the iron if you eat something rich in vitamin C alongside it so consider pairing it with other vegetables and fruits. To conclude, varying the way we eat spinach, sometimes raw, sometimes cooked will give us the full range of nutritional benefits.

 

 

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Try eating spinach raw with any salad or as a green in your humble lunch time sandwich. Another lunch time favourite of mine is to make a rice salad with spinach, lettuce and rocket, perhaps some avocado (which I hasten to add, I do not grow) or sauerkraut (which I have yet to try making myself). It is also delicious on top of a bowl of chili con carne, raw or cooked.

To cook it, add it in any dish like casserole, stew, curry etc. To cook it on its own, wilt the leaves of the spinach in a little butter over a medium heat in a frying pan. Serve with some additional falvourings if you would like: salt and pepper, chilli, ginger, soy sauce, sweet chilli sauce… Serve it alongside a baked potato with butter and cheese or swirl it in some rice with some cooked chickpeas.

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Weekly Update: 4th June 2016

It has been a really tough week. The garden has been neglected but I am sure that it was very happy to be watered by all that natural, torrential rain. It could have done without the chilly temperatures though but the squashes and courgettes look alive, for now…

This week I have:

  • Planted out all of the orach (Real Seeds Company purchase).
  • Planted out the lupins in a flower patch next to a bee hive while they were trapped indoors during the rain – haha, finally! They don’t care much for my presence …
  • I also planned lupins in the areas of the squash patch (they are meant to make them taste better?) and some dotted around the place as they will get quite big and needed a lot of space.
  • I weeded the rhubarb and fed and mulched it.
  • I weeded and mulched some paths to try and keep the weeds at bay for a while.
  • I weeded the quinoa and amaranth patches that are impossible to weed when the sun is out as they are too close to the bee hives again so I made the most of the foul weather.
  • I weeded and mulched a lettuce patch.

I think that was it. Not a very productive week. However, we did harvest our first bounty of pea pods to have with out homemade matte paneer curry with rice, lentil Dahl, naan, lettuce (of coarse) and cucumber raita (sadly not homegrown cucumber, yet). They were really delicious. I will have to sow as many as I can this month before I run out of time!

This week mum:

  • Planted out the rest of the lettuce from indoors that I had sown too close together… oops.
  • Dug up and planted some plants into small containers for a fete my sister has to sell them at next weekend.
  • Planted out the thyme from indoors around brassicas.
  • Tied up the blackcurrant bushes that were falling over from their laden branches – the bees are going nuts over the berries this year, particularly the raspberries. YUM.
  • Netted some strawberry patches.
  • Cleaned up some of the debris still inside the greenhouse, we are so bad at cleaning.
  • Cleaned around the outside of the greenhouse.
  • Pruned and tied back a budlier that was shadowing the greenhouse.
  • Poured liquid feed over the carrots, beetroot and some kale when it was not raining.

Here’s hoping the weather improves and that it is a better week all round next time. Come on June, give us a good summer please.

Salad – Lettuce

With the (partly) sunny weather and hopefully a good approaching summer, it is time to write about the salad to be harvested from the plot. Currently, I have lettuce, rocket, spinach and radishes ready for picking. We will be starting with lettuce.

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Lettuce

We planted some lettuce under the cover of fleece and in our falling apart cold frames last autumn, mostly ‘Vailan’, a light green winter gem that is hardy and currently thriving right now. It looks beautiful and tastes delicious. It can be sown from January until March and then again from September to December, germinating in the cooler months and then growing steadily for the next season. We planted some in November last year and I started again in February this year, starting these off indoors before planting them out under the cover of fleece. I have been harvesting them all month and they are delicious.

I still have so many lettuces sown indoors that need planting out and I am avoiding looking at the windowsills they are sitting on because they make me feel guilty. The problem with sowing lettuce seeds is that they are tiny and grow close together, making planting out a nightmare with delicate roots snapping in all places. It is more than likely I will have a good sob when planting them out. I planted some out the other day between my cabbages (that are netted so I will probably never be bothered to harvest them) and mum has been planting some out in our baby asparagus bed that we just started this year.

Since March, I have sown the following types of lettuces that are all looking pretty good, they just need planting out to give them some room and nutrition.

Little gems: ‘Amaze’ (March-June sowing), Winter gem ‘Vailan’

Cos lettuce: ‘Romaine Ballon’ (March-July)

‘Grandpa Admire’s Butterhead Lettuce’ (from ‘Real Seeds Company’, March-August sowing)

‘Reine  des Glaces Toothed Crisphead Lettuce’ (“)

‘Red Iceburg Lettuce’ (“)

‘Really Red Lettuce’ (“)

Other recommended varieties are:

Hardy hearting lettuce, ‘Merveille de Quatre Saisons’ (February-April and August-September), ‘Black seeded Simpson’ (February-September) and the most popular loose leaf variety out there, ‘Lollo Rossa’ (March-August) which I have tried, tested and liked and have some around right now from last year’s planting. The other two I could not buy this year but they are a popular and reliable variety recommended to me and I will be looking out for them.

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Lettuces are not too fussy but do love nutritious soil. Plant them into a patch that has been weeded and fed with Blood, Fish and Bone and well-rotted manure before applying a good layer of mulch on top to hold those nutrients in. They can be grown as catch-crops between other larger vegetables that need a lot of spacing out, such as cabbages, sweetcorn, cucurbits etc. They do not mind shade or sun but many often plant them in the shadiest patches because they will still thrive there. Most of mine are in full sun and they are still great so it really does not matter. Lettuce go wherever you can fit them!

The worst thing about lettuces is that they can bolt very quickly when you turn a blind eye for five seconds. Bolting is when the lettuce goes to seed and flowers when it is too hot, the watering conditions are unstable and the sun is offering too much light (unbelievable in England, yes?). The problem with bolting lettuce is that it tastes, well, vile. The only use people can find for bolting lettuce I am afraid is perhaps lettuce soup or perhaps cooking it in some other way, perhaps as an oriental vegetable in a stir fry or a stew? Chickens love some bolted lettuce though so don’t be afraid to share if you own livestock. Waste not, want not.

The other major problem with growing lettuce is that a patch of it is the garden of Eden for slugs and snails. I think salad is their favourite, as well as perhaps peas? If you can deter the slugs with any means you can and manage to successfully grow and harvest the lettuce for yourself, it is worth the time and trouble. Everyone likes lettuce and it goes so well with everything and it is so good for you!  The aim this year is to successfully sow and grow crops like lettuce so that we have a steady supply all year round for ourselves and our neighbors. This means sowing some every few months throughout the year during the sowing times.

The nutrition of lettuce varies in each variety. The most beneficial nutrients are vitamin A and potassium. The vitamin A comes from the beta-carotene in the leaves (the yellowing orange colour is hidden in lettuce by the green chlorophyll pigments in the lettuce). Our bodies convert the beta-carotene into vitamin A. The darker the green colouring of the lettuce, the more beta-carotene there will be. The stems and spines of the lettuce leaves provide us with dietary fiber while the minerals and vitamins are concentrated in the leaves themselves. Most lettuces, excluding iceberg varieties, included moderate levels of vitamin C, calcium, iron and copper, too.

Lettuce is one of the oldest vegetables around and a statement in the patch. It is a member of the daisy and thistle family, Asteraceae. Lettuce was first cultivated in Egypt for the production of oil from its seeds. Evidence of its cultivation has been dated back as early as 2680BC. Ancient Greeks believed it contained sleep inducing properties and served it at the end of a meal. 12,500 hectares in the UK are used to grow salad crops and lettuce accounts for 50% of it. Apparently, half of all UK households eat lettuce three times a fortnight. Growing your own in your own veg patch and you can beat this figure hands down: it is so prolific and easy to grow and eat that it will become an everyday green staple in your diet.

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This is the Quiche recipe that my mum taught me to make, with bacon, cheese and cream in it. Serve with a freshly picked salad from the garden, whatever is in season. Right now, that could mean lettuce, spinach, rocket and radishes. Later on try pairing it with some crisp carrots, cucumber, watercress, beetroot, anything that you have growing to make a light summer supper.

Quiche

(Serves 10, 20cm tart case required)

Pastry: – 170g/ 6oz plain flour – 110g/ 4oz salted butter – A little cold water to mix in

Filling: – 2 eggs and 1 yolk – 2-4 strips of pre-fried or grilled bacon – 60-100ml double cream – 100g grated cheddar cheese – 1 small onion, finely sliced – A little butter or olive oil, for frying – Salt and pepper for seasoning

  1. Pre-heat the oven to 190C.
  2. To make the pastry, put the flour into a large bowl with the butter. Using your fingertips, rub the ingredients together until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs. Make a well in the centre and add cold water, a little at a time and mix in to form a dough. Knead lightly until smooth and set to one side or if you are making it in advance, wrap it in cling-film and store it in the fridge.
  3. To make the filling, melt the butter or oil in a frying pan and fry the onions until golden brown. In a new bowl, beat the whole eggs and yolk with 80g of the grated cheddar cheese. Beat in enough double cream so that the mixture thickens and looks creamy. Break the pre-cooked bacon into tiny pieces and stir them in along with the fried onions, followed by the salt and pepper for seasoning.
  4. Press the pastry into a 20cm tart case. Scrape the filling on top of the pastry and smooth it over the base evenly. Scatter the remaining grated cheese over the top.
  5. Bake in the oven for about 40 minutes until the Quiche is firm and golden brown. Serve hot or cold with salad.

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Quinoa

I was going to write about salad harvesting as the warm weather has brought on the tasty green leaf season however, I thought I had better dedicate an entry to quinoa as it is now May and the frosts are receding leaving anyone who wants to plant some protein-rich grain right now before the sowing season ends in June. If you are unsure about this crop, hopefully this will change your mind.

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A friend of my mum’s tried growing quinoa last year. He said, I think I quote correctly, that it was ‘a waste of time’, meaning they either did not germinate or died without giving him a single seed. After this I was skeptical about trying to grow something that sounded so exotic but my mum was encouragingly excited for us to try it.

We bought our seeds from a delightful online company caller ‘Read Seeds’ (http://www.realseeds.co.uk). We bought a lot of lovely packets from  them and all are (so far…) doing really well. It is a delightful company and I would recommend checking them out as they have excellent principles on the using and purchasing of seeds for your veg patch and are worth the pennies spent on their unusual offers (Tree Cabbage, Mibuna, Mispoona, Sutherland Kale are just a couple of examples of what we purchased this year).

They offer the following varieties of quinoa:

‘Rainbow’ – if left long enough with patience, the seeds on the plant turn different colours. It is an ideal variety for growing in damp locations in soggy England.

‘Temuco’ – comes from South America and is a good choice for wet, windy parts of the UK as they have open seed heads that help to shed the rain without damaging the plant.

However, another very common weed looks exactly like quinoa. Fat hen is a native summer annual, common garden weed that thrives throughout England – and loves my garden soil. Fat hen was eaten as a vegetable from Neolithic times until the 16th century when it was replaced by spinach and cabbage. It is rich in vitamin C. The seeds were ground into flour and in Canada it was grown as food for pigs and sheep. Although it can contain potentially harmful levels of nitrates, cases of poisoning are rare. It is very efficient at extracting nutrients from the soil. Fat hen is an important constituent in the diet of farmland birds. The leaves are a source of ascaridole, an oil used to treat infestations of round worms and hook worms. It is one of the foragers’ perks yet is an invasive weed for the vegetable gardener, taking over the beds so if you do decide to keep it, try your best to keep it under control.

Unknown.jpeg Fat hen image from internet – looks identical to quinoa

The other grain that I have bought from ‘Real Seeds’ that is similar to quinoa is amaranth. ‘Real Seeds’ sell ‘Mixed Grain Amaranths’. They make up to 200,000 seed per plant, are very easy to thresh. The seeds don’t need grinding as they are so small the chef can just add them to anything. Very filling and nutritious, ‘Real Seeds’ say that they add it to rice as it adds both flavour and protein. Harvesting is much like quinoa and sowing times are the same. So far these are doing as well as the quinoa in the ground. More on this crop later to see how it is getting along.

They recommend sowing quinoa seeds from late April to early June so that you get a harvest from September to October. After trailing the internet and seeing that some people sowed their quinoa indoors or undercover as early as March, I keenly sowed my first batch at this time, indoors, in a hot room in a seed tray of compost. They did well – until a slug broke in and nibbled half of them before I found it and tossed it outside in disgrace.

I sowed another batch indoors last month, sometime in the middle of April. These germinated even more successfully than the previous lot. I planted out all of the quinoa last week in trenches that had been filled with rotted manure, compost and sand before being topped with a thick layer of mulch earlier this year. They are in a sunny spot so I am currently using fleece as shade and protection from any wind. Quinoa apparently likes sandy soil and a sunny site. So far, I am surprised to say, most look happy! Let us hope that I can keep them going a little longer and I might even harvest a couple of seeds later in the year.

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Quinoa is ready for harvest in 90-120 days. While you are waiting, you can pick some of the young leaves to add to your salad and steam them to use as greens.

When the leaves have fallen and only the dried seed heads remain on the stalks, quinoa is ready to harvest. As long as the weather is dry, the seeds will withstand a few light frosts. Allow the seeds to dry out naturally on the stalk if the weather is dry. If the weather is wet remove the stalks and lay them out to dry in an area that is sheltered from the rain. Dry the seeds until they are difficult to dent with your fingernail.

The dry quinoa seeds are easy to harvest. Using a gloved hand, seeds can be easily stripped upwards off the stalk. You can blow away small pieces of dirt or debris by pouring the grain from one container onto another in front of a gently blowing fan or use a screen to sift the grain. Thoroughly dry the quinoa grains before storing by spreading them out in the hot sun or in near an indirect heat source. Dried quinoa grains should be stored in air-tight containers in a cool, dark location. Quinoa will store in this way for up to six months.

An Andean plant that originated from Lake Titicaca, Peru and Bolivia, quinoa was cultivated and used by pre-Columbian civilisations and used as a local food staple. It was replaced by cereals on the arrival of the Spanish. At the time of Spanish arrival, quinoa was well-developed and widely distributed beyond Inca territory. The first Spaniard to record quinoa noted that the Native Indians planted crops around Concepción for food. Quinoa is then described as being one of the second grains cultivated on the face of the earth, somewhat resembling millet or short-grain rice. It is also recorded that the first shipment of seeds to Europe arrived dead and unable to germinate because of the high humidity of the sea voyage. In 1560, Cieza de León reported that quinoa was cultivated in the highlands of Pasto and Quito in abundance. Little maize was grown but the quinoa apparently thrived in this cooler climate. Throughout history, explorers have noted that quinoa is a staple food source for indigenous populations in South America in particular.

Historical evidence indicates that its domestication may have occurred between 3,000 and 5,000 BCE. Archeological discoveries of quinoa in tombs in Chile and in different regions of Peru support this theory. Before domestication, wild quinoa was probably first used for its leaves and seeds. Early evidence of its morphology can be witnessed on pottery sourced from the Tiahuanaco culture depicting a quinoa plant with several panicles along its stem, which would suggest one of the more primitive strains of the plant. Quinoa has undergone a wide range of morphological changes during its domestication and as a result of human activity. These include a more compact inflorescence at the tip of the plant, an increase in size of stem and seed, loss of seed dispersal mechanisms and high levels of pigmentation. These changes that can be witnessed in almost any crop cultivated by humans most likely occurred for the purpose of tolerance for climates and the necessary need we have for them.

Quinoa has had a lot of press lately about being a health food. It is high in protein, uncommon for some grains, and is considered a source of essential amino acids. Many vitamin Es are sources in quinoa, difficult again to find in grains and it is a very good source of manganese, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, dietary fiber, folate and zinc. For the home growing vegetarian or vegan, quinoa is an excellent crop to try to grow.

Quinoa seeds are naturally protected from insects and birds by a yellow coating that tastes bitter. This is removed by soaking the seeds overnight and rinsing a few times in cold water before cooking for about ten minutes, or until the seeds have absorbed all of the water, just like rice would. Consider preparing quinoa like you would do for dried beans.

As far as eating quinoa is concerned, it is just like any other grain. You cook it and serve it like rice or couscous. However, I found that it does have a slightly nutty or, unsurprisingly, seedy taste and texture making it, well, gritty. Have no fear, if a fussy eater like me can get by that, then you are fine. I have eaten it along with salads and on its own in other ways but the best way I have found so far is to serve it with some sort of stew instead or along with rice. Therefore, I offer you my mum’s Chicken Casserole. We used to eat this with rice all the time but now we sometimes serve quinoa instead or alongside it for variation and added protein. For vegetarians or vegans, omit the chicken and if you like, serve it with some mushrooms or beans instead (butter beans are my favourite for this but it is equally delicious just plain). This is a ‘quick’ version, cooking the chicken before adding it to the dish rather than having to leave the meat to slowly cook in the casserole for hours.

Recipe:

(Serves 6)

Chicken Casserole with Quinoa

– 2 large chicken breasts, cut into pieces – Olive oil, for frying – 1 large onion, peeled and thinly sliced – 2 large garlic cloves, diced – x2 450g tinned tomatoes – 4 large carrots, peeled and sliced into thin circles – Dash of Lea and Perrin’s – Dash of dark soy sauce – 1/4tsp Miso paste – Salt and pepper, to flavour – 300g quinoa – Peas, broccoli, cabbage, kale or runner beans, to serve – Greek yoghurt, to serve (optional)

  1. Put the olive oil in a frying pan and gently fry the chicken until cooked. Take the frying pan off the heat and set aside.
  2. In a large, heavy-based pan or casserole dish, add a little more olive oil and the chopped onion. Fry on a high heat until the onion starts to brown and then turn the flame down to a simmer.
  3. Add the garlic and the tinned tomatoes, stirring the ingredients together. Turn the flame up to high and add the disc-shaped cut carrots. Once the dish is bubbling, add the chicken and turn the flame down to simmer again. If you are adding any mushrooms or cooked beans, add them now too.
  4. Add the flavourings: a dash of Lea and Perrin’s will give it some heat, a dash of soy sauce will give it some more salty flavouring, a 1/4tsp miso paste will give it some more taste but it is quite strong so use only a little. Add a grating of salt and pepper over the top, stir and put a lid over the top of the dish and leave it to simmer for at least ten minutes, longer if you have time to let the flavours combine and the carrots to cook.
  5. To cook the quinoa, place a small amount of water in a pan, just enough to cover the quinoa, and bring it to the boil. Add the quinoa and turn the heat down to a simmer. Once the quinoa has absorbed all of the water and has turned soft, remove from the heat. Put another pan of water onto boil and add the prepared green vegetables of choice. Drain once boiled.
  6. To serve, place a helping of quinoa on a plate, a helping of casserole over the top alongside the green vegetables and, if you like, try a spoonful of Greek yoghurt on the side.
  7. Left overs can be stored in the fridge or frozen.

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