Pumpkin, Cheese and Garlic Bake [Vegetarian Christmas dish]

Christmas dinner can be a little tricky if you are vegetarian. Sure, you’ve got all the veg, bread sauce, Yorkshire puds and vegetarian stuffing if you like it, but unless you are splashing out on a nut roast, there isn’t a lot to make up a ‘main meal’. As a vegetarian – not just a vegetarian, but a fussy vegetarian who needs a balanced meal with all the groups for health reasons – Christmas dinner can be a pain when it comes to protein. I don’t like bread sauce, Yorkshire puds, stuffing or nut roast, so I’m basically doomed. This year, as I was catering for two vegetarians, I thought it was time to try a new recipe. I still had three pumpkins from the veg patch and I thought it was perfect for xmas dinner – I know they are traditionally linked with Thanksgiving, but in the UK we didn’t have it a month earlier so we could afford to use the pumpkin again!

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I needed something quick and simple, with some protein in. I opted for cheese. As pumpkin is, well, bland, I also decided to throw some garlic in there too.

It is really basic and can be made in advance of the big day so it doesn’t take up space in the kitchen. Of course, you could make this any time of the year too ūüėČ

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Pumpkin, Cheese and Garlic Bake

(Serves 6)

-1 large pumpkin -Olive oil, for drizzling -260g cheddar cheese -20g Swiss gruye -2 garlic cloves

  1. Preheat the oven to 180C.
  2. Cut the pumpkin and remove the seeds. Cut the pumpkin into large slices and place on baking trays. Drizzle with olive oil and roast in the oven for about 45 minutes, or until golden and cooked. Allow to cool completely.
  3. Cut the pumpkin up into small cubes and place in an oven-proof dish.
  4. Grate the cheese and dice the garlic up into small pieces. Mix together and then sprinkle it over the top of the pumpkin.
  5. Preheat the grill to high and heat the bake until the cheese has melted at the top is golden – it should only take a minute or two so keep an eye on it. Or, preheat the oven to 200C and bake for approximately 10-20 minutes, or until the top is golden and the cheese has melted.
  6. Serve. Store in the fridge when cold.

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Pumpkin Risotto

We still have a few pumpkins waiting for attention. Roasting them and then adding to a dish is a perfect way of using them – see¬†Pumpkin Coconut Curry,¬†Pumpkin Soup,¬†Pumpkin cake¬†for more ideas…

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Pumpkin Risotto

(Serves 4)

-1 small pumpkin -Olive oil, for ¬†roasting -25g butter ‚Äď 1 onion, sliced ‚Äď 325g rice ‚Äď Salt and pepper, for seasoning -750ml vegetable stock ‚ÄďMore cooked vegetables, to serve (optional)

  1. Pre-heat the oven to 180C. Slice and clear the insides of a pumpkin. Cut into segments and place on a roasting tray, drizzled with olive oil. Roast for 45 minutes, or until golden brown.
  2. Melt the butter in a large frying pan. Add the onion and fry gently over a medium heat for 2-3 minutes. Turn the heat down a little.
  3. Add the rice and a grinding of salt and pepper. Stir to coat the rice with the butter.
  4. Add the stock after frying the rice like a pilau for a couple of minutes, bring to the boil, stirring frequently.
  5. Turn the heat down once the stock is bubbling and leave to simmer until almost all of the stock has been absorbed. Add the roasted pumpkin, cut up into squares, cover, and leave to simmer for 5-10 minutes.
  6. Serve with cooked vegetables.

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Red Cabbage

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Just look at that red cabbage… homegrown and harvested from the plot yesterday.

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It was the first time I have ever grown red cabbages before and I thought it was so beautiful, I decided to eat some. I went from cabbage hater, to ‘green cabbages are ok’ to ‘wow, red cabbages are good cooked too!’

Why should we eat cabbages?

89g of raw cabbage contains –

  • Protein: 1g
  • Fibre:¬†2g
  • Vitamin K:¬†85% of the RDI
  • Vitamin C:¬†54% of the RDI
  • Folate:¬†10% of the RDI
  • Manganese:¬†7% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B6:¬†6% of the RDI
  • Calcium:¬†4% of the RDI
  • Potassium:¬†4% of the RDI
  • Magnesium:¬†3% of the RDI

Vitamin B6 and folate are essential for many important processes in the body, including energy metabolism and the normal functioning of the nervous system.¬†Cabbage is especially high in vitamin C, a potent antioxidant that may protect against heart disease, certain cancers and vision loss.¬†While both green and red cabbage are excellent sources vic C, red cabbage contains about 30% more.¬†One cup (89 grams) of chopped red cabbage packs in 85% of the recommended intake for vitamin C, which is the same amount found in a small orange. So I might avoid Fresher’s flu…

Cruciferous vegetables like cabbage contain many different antioxidants that have been shown to reduce chronic inflammation. Sulforaphane, kaempferol and other antioxidants found in brassicas are likely responsible for their anti-inflammatory effect.

Cabbage is full of gut friendly insoluble fibre, a type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down in the intestines. Insoluble fiber helps keep the digestive system healthy by adding bulk to stools and promoting regular bowel movements. Cabbage is also rich in soluble fibre which has been shown to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These bacteria perform important functions like protecting the immune system and producing critical nutrients like vitamins K2 and B12. Eating cabbage keeps your digestive system happy.

Red cabbage contains powerful compounds called anthocyanins. They give this vegetable its vibrant purple colour.¬†Anthocyanins are plant pigments that belong to the flavonoid family.¬†Many studies have found a link between eating foods rich in this pigment and a reduced risk of heart disease.¬†Cabbage contains more than 36 different kinds of anthocyanins…

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How to eat it?

Raw is probably best as most of the nutrients will be withheld that can sometimes leave during the cooking process. But I find raw cabbage icky. Steamed is the next best, followed by boiled, roasted, fried.

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We boiled it and ate our red cabbage with lots of other homegrown produce for dinner – potatoes, sweetcorn, green Savoy cabbage, carrots, runner beans and courgette. It was beautiful and yummy and helped to ease my sore gut that had been suffering all day. See – homegrown produce is so good for you!

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Update: one more pumpkin left to harvest… the other plants have all turned brown and died from powdery mildew so I cut their fruits off and took them inside to cure (more information here for those who are interested:¬†Curing pumpkins). I’m leaving the last one on to make sure it ripens more and will take it away when the plant finally has to go.

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Blight has hit the veg garden and the potatoes are starting to go – thank goodness it came so late this year as the main crop potatoes have managed to grow properly before the disease came. The tomatoes are going to suffer and I am expecting a lot of green ones to fall off soon but we did pretty well with the red tomatoes being grown outside this year in this once in a lifetime heatwave.

The autumn harvest of raspberries is being as wonderful as always. We had them last night for dessert along with homemade chocolate brownie ice cream and cookies and cream ice cream (recipes can be found on my Beagle Baking blog:

https://bellasbakingsite.wordpress.com/2018/08/06/chocolate-fudge-brownie-ice-cream/

https://bellasbakingsite.wordpress.com/2018/07/27/cookies-and-cream-ice-cream/  ).

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Beetroot

The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet. It is one of several of the cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris, grown for their edible taproots and their leaves, beet greens. Beta is the classic Latin name for beets, possibly Celtic origin before becoming bete in Old English in the 1400s. 

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Other than as a food, beets have use as a food colouring and as a medicinal plant.¬†From the Middle Ages,¬†beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic¬†to nullify the effects of “garlic-breath”. Many beet products are made from other¬†Beta vulgaris¬†varieties, particularly sugar beet. During the mid-1800s, beetroot juice was used to colour wine.¬†Beetroot can also be used to make wine nowadays completely, no longer just an addition to the drink made from grapes.

I’ve only ever used ‘Bolthardy’ but I think that it is a brilliant variety. Very rich, dark pinky-red colour, tastes pretty good and lasts in the ground for a long time. I grew too many two years ago and had loads left over in the ground (seeing as only three people in my family liked beetroot then). I thought they would just rot and I would give them to the pigs in winter, but they didn’t. I have been pulling them up two summers on. The outside is as rough as I thought it would be so I discard them, but the inside is still usable. Of course, I would recommend harvesting them in their first season as that will be when they are most delicious!

Another variety I have seen in a vegetable garden lately is candy coloured beetroot – white with pink swirls in it, called ‘Chioggia’. It is very pretty and tastes good too.

To grow beetroot seeds, sow¬†thinly, March-July, where they are to crop, 2.5cm (1″) deep, directly into finely-prepared, well-cultivated, fertile soil, which has already been watered. Allow 30cm (1′) between rows. I discovered that mine grew so much better when the ground was fed with well rotted manure. Beetroots can be grown in shade, but they seem to prosper more in direct sunlight. Keep them shaded when starting off with horticultural fleece. Regular sowings every three weeks should ensure a continuous supply of young beetroots. Harvest June-October.¬†Harvested roots can be stored in dry sand for winter use.

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Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, either alone or combined with any salad. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilised beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, the beetroot soup borscht is popular. In India, chopped and spiced beetroot is a delicious side dish. A traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dish is picked beet egg. Hard-boiled eggs are refrigerated in the liquid left over from pickling beets and allowed to marinate until the eggs turn a deep pink-red colour. In Poland and Ukraine,¬†beet is combined with horseradish¬†to form popular cwilka.¬†This is traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches or added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes. In Serbia cvekla¬†is used as a winter salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar, alongside meat dishes. As an addition to horseradish it is also used to produce the “red” variety of chrain, a popular condiment in Eastern European cuisine. A¬†slice of pickled beetroot is combined with other condiments¬†on a beef patty to make an Aussie burger.¬†When beet juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings.¬†Beatnins, obtained from the roots, are used industrially as red food colouring¬†e.g. to intensify the colour of tomato paste,¬†sauces, desserts, jams¬†and jellies, ice cream, sweets, and breakfast cereals.

Oldest archeological proofs that we used beetroot in ancient times were found on the Neolithic site of Aartswoud in the Netherlands and in Saqqara pyramid at Thebes, Egypt, which dates from third millennium BC. There are Assyrian texts that say that beetroots were growing in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in 800 BC. We can be positive that Mesopotamia knew about beetroots at that time because of these texts. Ancient Greeks cultivated beetroot around 300 BC but didn’t use the roots of the plants, only eating the leaves. They still respected the root and offered it to the sun god, Apollo, in the temple of Delphi and also considered it to be worth its weight in silver. Hippocrates used leaves of beetroot for binding and dressing wounds while Talmud, written in 4th and 5th century, advises eating beetroot, among other things, for longer life. Romans ate the roots but mainly for medicinal purposes. They used it as a laxative or to cure fever. Some used it as food as Apicius, the famous Roman gourmet, wrote a book called ‚ÄúThe Art of Cooking‚ÄĚ and in it gave recipes with beetroots used in broths and salads with mustard, oil, and vinegar.¬†The root part of the beet was cultivated for consumption in either Germany or Italy, first recorded in 1542.¬†The Elizabethans enjoyed them in tarts and stews. Medieval cooks stuffed them into pies.¬†All these uses were an old variant of beetroot which was long and thin like a parsnip.¬†This variety is thought to have evolved from a prehistoric North African root vegetable. The one that we know today appeared in the 16th and 17th century in Europe. It needed a few hundred years more to become popular in Central and Eastern Europe where new cuisines with beetroot started appearing. In 1747 a chemist from Berlin discovered a way to produce sucrose from beets. His student, Franz Achard, perfected this method for extracting sugar, leading him to predict the inevitable rise of beet beer, tobacco and molasses, among other products. The King of Prussia subsidized a sugar beet industry. The first plant was built in what is now western Poland. Today, around 20 percent of the world‚Äôs sugar comes from sugar beets. Beet sugar production requires 4 times less water than sugar cane production, making it an attractive crop throughout Europe. In Victorian times, beetroot was used to bring color to an otherwise colorless diet and as a sweet ingredient in desserts. Industrialisation allowed for easier preparation and conservation of vegetables, so beetroot became more available. The rosy betalain-rich juice of red beets was used as a cheek and lip stain by women during the 19th century, a practice that inspired the old adage ‚Äúred as a beet.‚Ä̬†Food shortages in Europe following World War One caused illnesses, including cases of mangel-wurzel disease.¬†It was symptomatic of eating only beets.¬†After the Second World War, because of the rations in some places, the most available vegetable was pickled beetroot in jars.

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The beet greens (leaves) are also edible. The young leaves can be eaten raw as part of a leafy salad whilst the older ones are better boiled or steamed, like cooked spinach. I find that the leaves are very strong tasting and don’t particularly like them. But my poultry love them.¬†Do not cut the leaves, but twist them off to prevent the colour ‘bleeding’.

Many complain that beets have an ‚Äúearthy‚ÄĚ taste, which isn‚Äôt far off the mark. Beets contain a substance called geosmin, which is responsible for that fresh soil scent in your garden following a spring rain. Humans are quite sensitive to geosmin, even in very low doses, which explains why our beet response ranges from one extreme to the other.

They are rich in antioxidants, folic acid, potassium, and fiber. They also contain unique antioxidants called betalains, which are currently being studied as a potential weapon in the fight against cancer. Beetroot can lower blood pressure and may increase blood flows to the brain thereby preventing dementia. A 2010 study carried out by Queen Mary‚Äôs University in London found that drinking just one 250ml glass of beetroot juice a day dramatically lowered blood pressure for several hours. Nitrates lower blood pressure because bacteria in the mouth and gut convert it into the gas nitric oxide, which relaxes and widens the blood vessels, allowing blood to circulate more freely.¬†Tests were conducted to see if beetroot would effect athlete’s performances. Athletes could run faster after drinking beetroot juice and cyclists racing in high altitudes had quicker finishing times, averagely 16 seconds quicker after drinking beetroot juice too.¬†Betacyanin, the pigment that gives beetroot its rich hue, is a powerful antioxidant that has been shown to possess anti-cancer properties.¬†In 2011, a study carried out by Howard University in Washington, USA,¬† found that betacyanin slowed tumour growth by 12.5 per cent when exposed to prostate and breast cancer cells. I remember reading an interview a while ago in the Telegraph about tennis player Ross Hutchins who suffered from a variety of cancer. He¬†had beetroot and orange juice every morning and evening. ‚ÄėEven when I was feeling really ill, I made sure I nailed eight beetroots a day,‚Äô he says.¬†The red colour compound beatnin¬†is not broken down in the body, and in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or stools to assume a reddish colour, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia.

I really didn’t like beetroot. I really intensely disliked it. The first time I got myself to like beetroot was when it was grated with a leafy green salad alongside a baked potato with cheese and baked beans. I had to finish everything on my plate, including the beetroot, but surprisingly, I actually came round to it. It was ok grated into tiny pieces, not so earthy and overpowering. I was pretty happy as it meant I could grow it in the garden and actually eat it. They didn‚Äôt convert me into a radish or fennel fan, but beetroot was good enough. I have been harvesting my two year old beetroots and enjoying them at last.

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Grated beetroot on top of poached egg yolk on toast

Sprinkle grated beetroot over mashed avocado on toast, it looks beautiful. Another thing I like is grated beetroot sprinkled on top of toast that has been covered with butter and a poached egg yolk (I don’t like egg whites. I’m sorry I’m so fussy…).

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Avocado on toast with beetroot – this is two year old beetroot!

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Aubergine

January is the month to keenly get ahead and start sowing your aubergine seeds indoors!

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Aubergine¬†(Eggplant, American and Australian or brinjal, Asian and African),¬†Solanum melongena,¬†is a member of the nightshade family, grown for its edible fruit. A¬†Solanum, it is related to the tomato, pepper and potato. Like its cousin, the Tomato, the Aubergine’s popularity was stifled in Europe and North America until relatively recent years due to its association to nightshade. Where as the Tomato was believed to be poisonous, the Aubergine was believed by superstitious Europeans to induce insanity and was unaffectionately known as the “Mad Apple” until only a few centuries ago.

It is a delicate, tropical plant that is only half-hardy Рmeaning it stays put indoors in rainy England. The stem is often spiny, the flower whitens to a pretty light purple. Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft seeds that, though edible, taste bitter because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids like the related tobacco.

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Aubergines have been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. The Aubergine’s scientific name “Melongena” is an ancient name for Aubergine in Sanskrit. About 500 B.C. Aubergine spread into neighbouring China and became a culinary favourite to generations of Chinese emperors. The Chinese saw the Aubergine differently than the Indians did and soon developed their own unique varieties. In particular, they preferred smaller fruited Aubergine, as well as differing shapes and colours. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu, an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544.

From India and Pakistan, the Aubergine soon spread West into the Middle East and the far west as Egypt and northward into Turkey. The Turks alone are believed to have over 1000 native recipes calling for the use of Aubergine in many different ways.¬†The Moors introduced the Aubergine to Spain were it received its Catalonian name ‚ÄúAlberginia‚ÄĚ. The numerous¬†Arabic¬†and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was introduced throughout the¬†Mediterranean area¬†by¬†Arabs¬†in the early Middle Ages. The vegetable soon spread throughout Europe. The 16th century Spaniards had great respect for the Aubergine and believed its fruit to be a powerful aphrodisiac, an “Apple of Love”. The Italians too, held the Aubergine in very regard and called them “Melanzana”. The English were responsible for coining the name “Eggplant” in regards to a variety with egg shaped, white fruit that they became familiar with, yet strangely, they refer to them today by the French name of Aubergine, which is a corruption of the Catalonian name “Alberginia”. A book on agriculture published¬†in 12th century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines.¬†There are records from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.¬†The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century.

Because of the plant’s relationship with¬†other nightshades,¬†the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities. It¬†has a special place in¬†folklore.¬†In 13th century Italian traditional folklore, the Aubergine¬†can cause insanity.¬†In 19th century Egypt it was said that insanity was “more common and more violent” when the Aubergine¬†is in season during¬†the summer months.

In 2013, global production of Aubergines was 49.4 million tonnes. More than 1,600,000 hectares (4,000,000 acres) are devoted to the cultivation of Aubergines in the world. 57% of output comes from China alone, followed by India, Iran, Egypt and Turkey as the following top producers.

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Aubergines require a little attention when grown at home. They like sun and are easily knocked off their steady course to maturity so they should be grown under cover.

I start mine off under cover in January otherwise they never seem to grow/develop fruit during the year. February-March is kind of the final deadline. ¬†I start them off in compost in old tall yoghurt containers with holes punctured in the bottom to release water. I place them in a seed tray in the warmest room in our house (my dad’s bedroom is my propagator) and when they have germinated, I put them on the windowsill to get lots lot light during the day before putting them on the floor by the radiator again at night to keep them warm. Once they are big enough and the weather has improved, I pot them on in very large pots of compost in our greenhouse. As the plant grows, it must be supported by sturdy canes. Fortnightly comfrey or seaweed feeds will help to encourage the flowers to fruit. Mr Fothergills recommends spraying the flowers to encourage fruit to set. Be careful- those pretty purple petals are easily damaged.

I have tried growing ‘Black Beauty’, a popular breed. I was given some long, thin, purple-marbled styled ones (that I don’t know the name of) by a friend to grow last year. They unfortunately were not very delicious – they just would not ripen or swell properly. Other recommendations by research suggests: Moneymaker, Rosa Bianca and Slim Jim (especially if you live in the chillier North).

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You will hopefully be able to harvest from August-October. Don’t wait for the aubergines to reach supermarket size, just like courgettes or cucumbers. Snip them off whenever they reach 8cm in length and up to 18cm or so. Mark Diacono, Otters Farm, suggests salting aubergine slices for half an hour, rinsing them, patting them dry, before using as this can get rid of bitterness.

It will mostly be the weather/growing conditions that injure your crop. Otherwise known pests are aphids and red spider mites. Companion planting with basil is one human approach or parasitic controls.

Aubergines are an excellent source of dietary fibre. They are also a good source of vitamins B1, B6 and potassium. It is high in minerals copper, magnesium and manganese. Aubergines are rich in antioxidants, specifically nasunin found in aubergine skin Рwhich gives it its purple colour. A potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, nasunin has been found to protect the lipids (fats) in brain cell membranes. Cell membranes are almost entirely composed of lipids and are responsible for protecting the cell and helping it to function. The lipid layer is crucial for letting nutrients in, wastes out and receiving instructions from messenger molecules that tell the cell what to do. Research indicates that phenolic-enriched extracts of Aubergines may help in controlling glucose absorption, beneficial for managing type 2 diabetes and reducing associated high blood pressure (hypertension). Aubergines may also help to lower LDL cholesterol levels, likely to due to nasunin and other phytochemical in the fruit.

Aubergines come in a wide array of shapes, sizes and colours. The varieties range from dark purple to pale mauve and from yellow to white. The longer purple variety is the most commonly eaten. Aubergines have a very neutral taste, which allows them to be combined with many other ingredients. They are especially good when prepared with garlic (think Baba Ganoush dip) and herbs such as marjoram and basil.

A fresh aubergine is firm and has a smooth, very glossy, dark purple skin and white, spongy flesh. A ripe aubergine has a matte gloss and yields slightly under finger pressure. Its weight must be in proportion to its size: excessively light aubergines can be limp and dehydrated.

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Aubergine is used in plenty of cuisines worldwide. They are curried in India; they are also roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with¬†onions, tomatoes¬†and spices¬†and then slow cooked gives the¬†South Asian¬†dish¬†gojju.¬†Another version of the dish,¬†begun-pora¬†(charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh¬†where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander and mustard oil. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called¬†begun bhorta. In a dish called¬†bharli vangi, brinjal is stuffed with ground¬†coconut, peanuts¬†and¬†masala¬†and then cooked in oil. Aubergines are¬†also deep fried as in the¬†Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karniyarik of the Turkish and Greek moussaka (yum).¬†¬†It can be sliced¬†and deep fried, then served with plain¬†yoghurt¬†(optionally topped with a tomato and garlic sauce), such as in the¬†Turkish¬†patlńĪcan kńĪzartmasńĪ (meaning fried aubergines), or without yoghurt, as in¬†patlńĪcan ŇüakŇüuka. Perhaps the best-known Turkish aubergine¬†dishes are imam bayildi¬†(vegetarian) and karniyarik¬†(with minced meat). There are PLENTY of recipes from different cuisines worldwide to choose from, take a look on they internet to be inspired! One of my favourites of all time is the dip baba ganoush: roasted aubergine, blended in a food processor along with tahini paste, lemon juice, diced raw garlic, salt and pepper and served with raw parsley sprinkled on top, a mixture of your favourite salad leaves and Manneesh (sesame and thyme coated flatbread) for dipping – delicious with homegrown boiled potatoes or rice too. It is like another version of humous (which we all know I’m a fan of…).

Aubergines are also stewed in the classic French Ratatouille and here I offer my recipe that I used to cook the (few) Aubergine I managed to grow/harvest 2016 season. If you are lucky, you will be able to make the entire dish using homegrown produce!

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Ratatouille 

(Serves 2)

  • Olive oil, for frying in
  • 1/2 – 1 onion, sliced
  • 1 aubergine, sliced into small chunks
  • 1 courgette, sliced into discs
  • 1 red pepper, sliced into small chunks
  • 1-2 garlic cloves, diced
  • 200-400g¬†fresh tomatoes, sliced in half
  • Salt and pepper, for seasoning
  1. Heat the oil in a large pan. Fry the sliced onion and aubergine, turning it down to simmer.
  2. Add the sliced courgette and pepper. Add the diced garlic and the tomatoes, stirring to combine.
  3. Leave to simmer for at least 15 minutes – 30 minutes, the longer the better, stirring now and then.
  4. Once the vegetables are tender and the tomatoes have broken down, releasing their juices to become a sauce, add salt and pepper for seasoning and remove from the heat and serve hot in dishes.

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What to do with left over pumpkin?

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For anyone who is debating throwing out their pumpkin after Halloween – stop!

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Start by cutting it up into chunks.

Any seeds you have saved from the inside, pat them dry and follow this recipe:

Pumpkin Seed Crisps – smell and taste like popcorn

– Seeds from a pumpkin – Salt and pepper – Olive oil

  1. Preheat the oven to 180C.
  2. Scrape out the seeds from the inside of a pumpkin and pat dry with kitchen roll. Place them on a pan and sprinkle salt and pepper generously over the top along with a little olive oil.
  3. Bake in the oven for 15 minutes or until golden brown.

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For the pumpkin flesh, put the chunks on large roasting trays and drizzle with olive oil. Pop them in the oven at 180C and roast for about 40 minutes or until they are cooked.

Eat them like this alongside other veggies or dishes or use these roasted slices for another recipe…

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Pumpkin Curry

(Serves 4)

Р1 onion, finely sliced Р1 tsp ghee or oil for frying Р1 tbsp mustard seeds Р1tbsp nigella seeds Р1 tbsp fenegreek seeds Р1 handful curry leaves Р1 tsp cumin Р1 tsp ground coriander Р1 1/2 tsp ground turmeric Р1 1/4  tsp ground garam masala Р500g roasted pumpkin Р1 large garlic clove, diced  Rice, chapatti, popadom, naan or a mixture, to serve РFreshly cut coriander and parsley, to serve

  1. Oil a large frying pan. Peel and slice the onion into thin strips and place in the pan. Heat high for a few minutes before turning down to simmer, stirring the onion. Let the onion simmer to a golden brown before adding the mustard seeds, nigella seeds, fenegreek seeds and curry leaves, stirring in the ingredients to combine. Allow the contents of the pan to simmer for a few minutes to absorb the flavours.
  2. Add the other spices: cumin, ground coriander, turmeric and garam masala, quickly followed by the pumpkin.
  3. Add the diced garlic clove, stir in.
  4. Serve hot on its own, with rice, an Indian bread, chutneys and freshly picked herbs from your garden, like parsley or coriander, torn and sprinkled over the top.

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Pumpkin Dahl 

(Serves 4)

Р1 onion, finely sliced Р1 tsp ghee or oil for frying Р1 tbsp mustard seeds Р1tbsp nigella seeds Р1 tbsp fenegreek seeds Р1 handful curry leaves Р1 tsp cumin Р1 tsp ground coriander Р1 1/2 tsp ground turmeric Р1 1/4  tsp ground garam masala Р300-400g roasted and food-processed/ raw, grated pumpkin Р1 large garlic clove, diced Р250g red split lentils -Boiling water from the kettle РRice, chapatti, popadom, naan or a mixture, to serve РFreshly cut coriander and parsley, to serve

  1. Oil a large frying pan. Peel and slice the onion into thin strips and place in the pan. Heat high for a few minutes before turning down to simmer, stirring the onion. Let the onion simmer to a golden brown before adding the mustard seeds, nigella seeds, fenegreek seeds and curry leaves, stirring in the ingredients to combine. Allow the contents of the pan to simmer for a few minutes to absorb the flavours.
  2. Add the other spices: cumin, ground coriander, turmeric and garam masala, quickly followed by the finely grated pumpkin. Place a pan lid over the top of the frying pan and leave until the pumpkin¬†is¬†slightly cooked. Lift the lid occasionally to stir to encourage the ‚Äėsweating‚Äô of the vegetables.
  3. Add the diced garlic clove, stir in.
  4. Meanwhile, boil a kettle of water. Put the red lentils into a glass or other microwave dish, large enough to hold all of the contents of the Dahl. Scrape the contents of the frying pan into the dish along with the lentils, followed by the boiling water, enough so that it is covering the ingredients. Stir to combine.
  5. Place a lid over the top of the Dahl and microwave for 15 minutes before checking and stirring. If the lentils have absorbed all of the liquid, it is ready. It will probably need around half an hour before this happens. If the lentils look too dry, add a dash of more boiling water.
  6. Serve hot on its own, with rice, an Indian bread, chutneys and freshly picked herbs from your garden, like parsley or coriander, torn and sprinkled over the top.

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Pumpkin Cake with Citrus Cream Cheese Sauce

Originally a River Cottage Veg Patch Cupcake recipe from a free booklet that came in my grandma’s paper. This is the first year I altered it slightly by making it into a Victoria sandwich styled all in one cake rather than individual cupcakes – it was little quicker and 12 pumpkin cupcakes can be hard to shift sometimes. The great thing about this recipe is that you really don’t know that there is pumpkin in it. I didn’t tell my family what the magic ingredient was the first time I made the cupcakes and they could not tell. Even my brother eats it and he is not the most ardent vegetable lover, let along pumpkin lover. Best¬†cake to use a¬†pumpkin in and the cream cheese icing¬†is the perfect compliment. Who knew that citrus and pumpkin were such a lovely match? I also increase the amount of pumpkin…

A little note about the cream cheese sauce/icing: you might want to halve it as I always have too much but I just offer it as an addition as most people like to put extra with their slice. Also, mine never seems to set into icing hence why I have called it ‘sauce’. Looks prettily/spooky when it runs down the sides anyway…

Edit: After reading into it, I now know that the icing insists on using full-fat cream cheese otherwise it doesn’t set. I did use full-fat but very cheap stuff. So if you make this icing, go for full-fat, EXPENSIVE real cream cheese!

(Serves 10)

Р200g self-raising flour -1 tsp baking powder  Р3 medium sized eggs Р175g caster sugar Р300g roasted pumpkin РFinely grated zest of 1 lemon

For the cream cheese filling and topping: – 100g full-fat cream cheese – 25g butter, softened – 170g icing sugar – Finely grated zest of 1 orange

  1. Preheat the oven to 180C. Line two 20cm sandwich tins with baking parchment.
  2. In a food processor, whizz the roasted pumpkin so it is finely grated.
  3. Beat the eggs and sugar together in a large bowl using an electric whisk until the mixture is thick, creamy and pale.
  4. Fold in the flour and baking powder. Scrape the pumpkin out from the food processor and fold in, followed by the lemon zest.
  5. Spoon the mixture into the cake tins evenly and smooth down the surfaces. Bake in the oven for 30 minutes or until lightly golden and springy to the touch. Insert a cake skewer into the centers to check that they are done. If it leaves clean, they are ready. Leave the cakes to cool in their tins for at least ten minutes before turning them out onto wire racks to cool completely. This is very important as the icing will run if spread on the cakes when they are too hot.
  6. To make the icing: beat the cream cheese and butter in a large bowl using an electric whisk until the mixture is smooth.
  7. Add the icing sugar and zest. Beat until it is very light and creamy. The mixture should be slightly thickened. If it is not, add a little more icing sugar and mix in well. Cover the bowl with a plate or cling-film and refrigerate for at least 1 hour before use. This is also important as it needs to be thickened or it will continue to run off the cake.
  8. Once the cake is completely cool and the icing has been left to chill, turn one cake upside down on a serving plate and spread half of the cream cheese icing over the base. Place the other half of the cake upright on top of the iced sponge. Ice the top of the other half, spreading and smoothing it over the surface carefully.
  9. Serve cut into slices. It should keep for about 3-4 days in an air-tight container.

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Calabrese Broccoli

Calabrese broccoli, an edible green crop from the group Brassica oleracea, from the cabbage family is harvested for its flowering head. Broccoli has large flowering heads, usually green in colour, branching out from a stalk in a tree-like structure from a thick stalk, which is edible, surrounded by giant leaves. The growing style resembles a cauliflower very much.

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‘Ironman’ Calabrese Broccoli – July 2016

The world ‚Äėbroccoli‚Äô comes from the Italian word ‚Äėbroccolo‚Äô, translating as the ‚Äėflowering crest of a cabbage‚Äô and is a diminutive form of ‚Äėbrocco‚Äô, meaning small snail or sprout.¬†The broccoli we know today is the result of careful breeding of cultivated leafy cole crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in around the 6th century BC. Since the Roman era, broccoli has been considered a unique ingredient in Italy. It is considered that broccoli was first brought to England from Antwerp during the 18th century.¬†Broccoli was first introduced to the USA by Southern Italian migrants but was not well-known until as late as the 1920s where it was written people ate the heads ‚Äėlike cauliflowers and the stems like asparagus‚Äô.

Calabrese broccoli was named after Calabria in Italy and is what most people refer to when they say ‚Äėbroccoli‚Äô, rather than sprouting broccoli or purple sprouting broccoli. Cabbages were being grown in what is now Turkey and spreading through the Mediterranean. During around 8th century BC, migrants to Italy supposedly brought the purple sprouting broccoli that established itself in Tuscany. The Romans were quite taken by the vegetable and it became a standard favourite in Rome where the Calabrese variety was developed and adored. Roman farmers named it ‚Äėthe five green fingers of Jupiter‚Äô. Apicius, cookbook author of ancient Rome, prepared broccoli by first boiling it and then brushing it ‚Äėwith a mixture of cumin and coriander seeds, chopped onion plus a few drops of oil and sun-made wine‚Äô. The Romans served the broccoli with creamy sauces, flavoured with various herbs and cooked it in wine. Roman Emperor Tiberius‚Äôs(14 BC-37 BC) son loved broccoli excessively. Excluding all other foods, he gorged on broccoli prepared in the Apicius¬†manner above for an entire month. When his urine turned bright green and his father scolded him severely, he finally abandoned his beloved broccoli. Catherine de Medici of Tuscany may have been the first to introduce broccoli to France when she married Henry II in 1533. She arrived in France with her Italian chefs and armfuls of vegetables, including broccoli. However, the first mention of broccoli in French history was not until 1560.

The first mention of the vegetable in literature in England names it as ‚Äėsprouting cauliflower‚Äô or ‚ÄėItalian Asparagus‚Äô. It was not particularly popular when it arrived during the 18th century. Commercial cultivation of broccoli in the USA can be traced to the D’Arrigo brothers, immigrants from Messina, Italy, whose company made some tentative plantings in San Jose, California in 1922. A few crates were initially shipped to Boston,¬†where there was a thriving Italian immigrant culture in the North End. The broccoli business boomed, with the D’Arrigo’s brand name ‚ÄėAndy Boy‚Äô, named after Stephano’s two-year-old son, supported by advertisements on the radio publicly advertised the green vegetable. Nowadays, broccoli is not so much the ‚Äėstranger‚Äô to the kitchen garden as it was once called by an English writer. In 2013, global production on broccoli was recorded at 22.3 million tonnes, China and India accounting for 76% of its production. Spain, Mexico and Italy were the secondary producers, 0.5 million tonnes annually.

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Broccoli can produce poorly in hot summer weather, growing best at an average 18-23C (64-73F). When a cluster of flowers have grown in the middle, large enough to eat but still green and not turning brown or bolting, the Calabrese broccoli is ready for harvesting.

This is my first year growing a Calabrese broccoli and I was amazed at the results, expecting it to be incredibly difficult and unlikely to ever grow a large enough floret to eat, much like cauliflowers (I harvest mini-ones, not the full sized ones you find in the supermarkets otherwise they will have bolted if I leave them to get bigger). But I have managed to pick a fair few biggish ones, multiple at a time to prevent bolting and because they were still only I would say medium sized but they looked and tasted like proper broccoli! I was very chuffed. The variety I have grown this year is ‚ÄėIronman‚Äô, (Sow: January-June, Harvest: June-November).

Sow the seed 0.5cm (1/4inch) deep in a tray of compost. Keep moist and at a warm temperature. I grew mine in a warm bedroom in January and some later ones in March. Once they had germinated, I put them on a sunny windowsill during the day time and then put them on the floor near a radiator at night time again when it was dark and chilly. Once the plants are large enough to handle, gradually accustom them to cooler conditions (I moved them out of the heated bedroom to a cooler windowsill permanently until they were large enough to plant outside). Transplant into well-fertilised soil that has been Blood, Fish and Boned, manured, composted and mulched. Transplant 45cm (18inches) apart, allow 60cm (2inches) between rows. Plant firmly up to the lowest leaves and water well (all brassicas require constant watering). As frost will most likely still be loitering, fleece well for the next few months until all risks of freezing temperatures have gone. Once you remove the fleece, you need to net the broccoli with insect netting to protect your crops from birds, but most particularly cabbage whites that will wreck havoc. It is best to do this immediately after you have removed the fleece.

To harvest, cut the heads from the plants with a fair chunk of stalk and you should get some smaller side-florets following on from your main harvest. They need to be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow. Calabrese broccoli is best steamed or boiled: bring a pan of water to the boil. Cut the broccoli florets from the stem, then, using a knife, shred the tougher outside bits of the stalk and cut up the tender inside into match-sticks. Place them both in the pan of water, turning down the heat and leaving to simmer for a few minutes until tender Рyou don’t want them to be rock solid but you don’t want to leave them too long or they will be a pile of mush and turn tasteless. The other way of cooking broccoli that I like is to add them to a stir-fry. They make a delicious addition and if you do not care for boiled stalks then this is the way to eat them as they accompany an oriental dish wonderfully. The other way is eating it raw, which I have done, but it is for those who really like the strong flavouring of brassicas. Store any cut raw broccoli wrapped in a plastic bag in the fridge and use it as soon as possible, within a week of harvesting.

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Broccoli is an excellent source of vitamin C (20% Daily Value) and vitamins K, A and E. It may be important to note now that not a lot of vegetables include such a significant amount of vitamin K. There are also many nutrients in broccoli including potassium, zinc, fibre, beta carotene, calcium, iron, plus many other essential benefiting nutrients, including carotenoid compounds lutein and zeaxanith. This vegetable can benefit our health, well-being and lifestyle in many ways due to its powerful combination of vitamins and nutrients. It can support and strengthen many areas of the body, such as the digestive system, liver, eyes, heart, skin, and the immune system. Broccoli has been suggested to aid the body in fighting major diseases including cancer and heart disease. This vegetable is rich in energy boosting vitamins that can decrease stress levels and influence concentration, alertness and vitality. Raw broccoli contains several amounts of B vitamins and manganese as well as reducing levels of sulforaphane. However, cooking it does remove these particular nutrients so if you like broccoli raw as well as cooked, then dig in.

Broccoli could potentially help to reduce cholesterol and high-blood pressures due to its nutritional content of enzymes, as well as osteoporosis, heart disease and cancer, as mentioned previously. There has also been research into the possibility of broccoli preventing adult-onset diabetes. Chromium, found in broccoli, boosts the ability of insulin to perform better in people with slight glucose intolerance.

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Eat your broccoli boiled or steamed with any dish that you would eat a cooked green: pasta, rice dishes, roast dinners, it goes very well with cheese… Funnily enough, recalling broccoli as a kid, I remember loving it with spaghetti Bolognese (excluding the mince) with lots of cheddar cheese melted on top of it. Try adding broccoli to your cauliflower cheese, along with boiled courgettes and perhaps potatoes/sweet potatoes if you have any hanging around Рa delicious mix.

Fry it in oil and other flavourings for a stir fry and serve with noodles…

Roast or bake it along with carrots and parsnips to serve with your roast chicken and potatoes…

Or try this combination for a simple, hearty and nutritious weekday supper: Sausages and Rice with Vegetables.

Mix and match the vegetables and accompaniments for anything you like. For myself, I eat Glamorgan sausages (vegetarian, containing leeks, potatoes and Welsh cheddar cheese wrapped up in a breadcrumb coating) while my family eat organic free-range sausages. You can also swap the rice for potatoes if you have an influx of them too.

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Sausages/Glamorgan Sausages with Rice and Boiled Vegetables

(Serves 6)

– 6 -12 organic sausages/ 6-12 glamorgan sausages – 400g rice – 1 large (or equivalent) broccoli – 1 large cauliflower – 150g peas – 100g kale, de-stalked – 4 medium sized courgettes – 4 medium sized carrots – To serve, optional, redcurrant jelly, cranberry sauce, mint jelly, mustard, gravy, sliced onions fried in olive oil

  1. Preheat oven 200C. Put the sausages on a non-stick baking tray and leave in the oven for about 15 minutes until starting brown on bottom. Turn them over and cook them for about another 15 minutes until brown on top.
  2. Bring a pan of water to the boil. Tip in the rice and turn the heat down to simmer. Leave for about 20 minutes, until the rice has absorbed all of the water (stir in occasionally to encourage it). Once the water has gone, take off the heat.
  3. Bring another large pan/lots of smaller pans of water to the boil for the vegetables: cut the broccoli into florets, take the tough outer skin off with a sharp knife and cut the stalk into strips. Put into a pan of boiled water and turn down to a simmer. Cook for about 8-10 minutes or until tender. Cut up the cauliflower into florets and cook it like the broccoli. Place the stripped kale into a pan of boiled water and turn it down to a simmer, leaving it to cook for about five minutes. Cut the courgettes into small circles and put in a pan of boiled water, turning it down to simmer, for about 8 minutes. Peel the carrots and cut them into circles and put in a pan of boiling water, turning it down to simmer, for about 10-12 minutes. Cook the peas in boiled water for about 2 minutes.
  4. Once the variation of vegetables are done, drain them all.
  5. Serve the sausages with the rice and assorted vegetables and any optional additions desired.

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Glamorgan Sausage  with rice, boiled broccoli, courgettes, cauliflower and peas